Absolute Rulers of Russia
Ivan The Terrible/ Peter The Great
PowerPoint and Keynote Presenter’s Notes
Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction
Chapter 21, Section 4
Presenters Notes, Higher Order Questions, Concepts
Absolute Rulers of Russia
Ivan The Terrible & Peter The Great
The Great Debate
Should Russia model itself after the West or stay with traditional Russian Culture?
Ivan III of Russia
-Ruled from 1462-1505
-Conquered territory around Moscow
-Liberated Russia from the Mongols
-Centralized Russia’s Government
-Ruled Russia from 1505-1533
-Added territory to the Russian State
-Increased the power of the central government
The First Czar
Ivan IV “The Terrible”
-Took the throne in 1533 at 3 years old.
-Boyars (Landed Nobles) fought for control of Ivan.
-At 16, he seized power and crowned himself Czar or Caesar, (Leader)
-Married Anastasia, a Boyar family: Romanov
1533: Reign Begins
1547 “Good Period” (Married To Anastasia)
1560 “Bad Period” (Anastasia’s Death)
1581: Son’s Death
1584: Ivan’s Death
Ivan was truly happy and a different person with his Anastasia, things would go downhill fast after her death.
Ivan’s Good Period
-Expanded The Empire
-Created a Code of Laws
Rule By Terror
Concept: Self Interest
The act or policy of making decisions based on what is best for the individual, group or nation.
Ivan’s “Bad Period”
-Starts with the death of his wife Anastasia
-Accused Boyars of poisoning her
-Created “secret police” to hunt down and kill traitors
Oprichniki: Secret Police to eliminate the Czars opponents. They rode black horses and wore black uniforms.
Re-Distribution of Land
-The Oprichniki would murder the Boyars Ivan felt were a threat to him along with all the people that worked for them (Whole Families)
Higher Order Question: How did Ivan keep the new Boyars loyal to him?
Answer: Ivan owned the land now and these Boyars were dependent on him to use it.
Rise of The Romanovs
Death of The Heir
-A violent fight breaks out between father and son
-Ivan dies from head wounds
-Feodor, a mentally and physically weak ruler, would take the throne, but was found incapable of ruling.
-Feodor dies without an heir
The Time of Troubles
-Boyars struggle for power
-Czars die mysteriously
-Imposters take the throne
-Finally, a new Czar is elected from the major cities: Michael Romanov
-Romanov Dynasty ruled Russia for 300 years (1613-1917)
1. Boris Godunov was the regent for Feodor, his reign was not as successful.
2. Frost in summer time ruined crops and starved the people
3. False Dimitris: a series of people claiming to be Feodors younger brother-claim the throne
Peter The Great Comes To Power
-Restored order to Russia
-Strengthened the government
-Put Down a Revolt
-Paved the way for absolute rule by Peter
Peter The Great
Named because he was one of Russia’s Greatest Reformers
Peter and his brother Ivan were co-rulers, but were influenced and manipulated by their older sister Sophia. Eventually Sophia was forced into a Convent and Ivan died making Peter the sole ruler.
Higher Order Question: As you look at this painting of Peter, what was the artist trying to convey about him?
Answer:1. Looking To The Future Not The Past, Map: Expansion of Russia, 3. Canon and Sword: Strength
Russia Contrasts With Europe
Serfdom In Russia
-Austria-Hungary Abolishes Serfdom in 1767
-France Abolishes Serfdom in 1789
-Russia Abolishes Serfdom in 1861
-Serfs provide cheap labor for Agriculture
-Serfs Treated like property
-Serfs could be given as presents/debt payment
Answer: To have little or no contact with other peoples ideas, culture….
-Middle Ages: Russia looks to Constantinople- Not to Rome
-Renaissance & Age of Exploration:
-Mongols Cut Russia Off
-Only seaport: Archangel is choked with ice
-Religion: Eastern Orthodox Church
-Western Europe: Catholics and Protestants
Russians viewed the Protestants as heretics and was another reason to avoid the West.
Peter Visits The West
The Grand Embassy
-Peter’s Route through Europe
-Peter was fascinated by many things:
-Ship building, Machinery, Dentistry, Anatomy, Industry, Navigation…
Peter Rules Absolutely
-Peter believes by Westernizing Russia it will increase Russia’s power
-“For you know yourself that, though a thing be good and necessary, our people will not do it unless forced to.” Peter The Great
Answer: To make or become Different
The Church Under State Control
-Peter abolishes the office of Church Patriarch
-(Head of the church)
-Set up “Holy Synod” Led by himself
Higher Order Question: Why do you think it was important to bring the church under his control?
Answer: The Church might get in the way of his reforms
Reducing the Power of the Great Land Owners
-Peter recruited lower ranking families
-Gave them land in return for loyalty
-Appointed them to high positions
-Increasing Peter’s power and decreasing the Nobles
Building a European Army
-Peter expands the army to 200,000 men
-Hires European Officers to train his troops
-Buys Modern European Weapons
-Levies crushing taxes to pay for it all.
-Peter believed education was the key to reforming his country.
Previously, foreign study was punishable by death- now it was strongly encouraged and in some cases forced!
Peter’s Other Reforms
-Potatoes became a staple of the Russian Diet
-Started Russia’s first newspaper
-Raised Women’s Status
-Women were allowed to attend social gatherings
-Ordered Nobles to wear Western Clothing
-Nobles ordered to wear European dress not Traditional
-Schools of Navigation, Art and Science
Higher Order Question: Why did Peter think education was key?
Answer: Education is the building block of innovation, especially when interaction was difficult because of Geography.
Establishing St. Petersburg
“A Window To The West”
-Peter defeats Sweden after 21 years to secure a port to the West
The Importance of St Petersburg
-Made it easier to travel to the West
-Built on a swamp, 25 to 100 thousand people died building it.
-Became a bus sea port
-Peter died in 1725
Peter The Great Westernized and Modernized Russia
Peter died from trying to save sailors in the bay. Hands on to the end!
These materials were prepared by Harms LLC and have neither been developed, reviewed, nor endorsed by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, publisher of the original WORLD HISTORY: Patterns of Interaction work on which this material is based.
Absolute Rulers of Russia Presentation
Mr. Harms has designed a number of PowerPoint and Keynote presentations to help students understand history. Designed by a teacher for teachers, this PowerPoint focuses on "Absolute Rulers of Russia". This presentation is designed to give students an overview of the development of Czars in Russia. Students will be shown maps, animations and descriptions of some of the major events in the development Ivan The Terrible and Peter The Great.
The presentation is totally customizable, allowing you to add your own pictures, graphics and animations to take what we've done even farther. It comes with presentation notes to help you discuss the subject and engage them in the development of humans. At less than $4.00, it will save you time and lay the foundation for presentations that help students understand and remember.
The Topics include: Ivan The Terrible, Ivan III, Vasily Ivanovich, Czar, Ivan IV, Boyars, Romanov, Oprichniki, Peter The Great, Serfdom, Eastern Orthodox Church, The Grand Embassy, Absolute Monarchs, Reforms, Westernizing Russia, St Petersburg.
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