Central European Monarchs Clash
PowerPoint and Keynote Presenters Notes
Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction
Chapter 21, Section 3
Presenters Notes, Higher Order Questions, Concepts
Central European Monarchs Clash
Chapter 21 Section 3
-After the Peace of Augsburg, there was a brief peace
-Tension rises between the Lutherans and Catholics in Central Europe
The Thirty Years War
-War between the Catholics and Protestants
-Lutherans join the Protestant Union (1608)
-Catholic Princes form the Catholic League (1609)
-Both fear the spread of Calvinism
Alliance: An agreement between two or more parties to advance common interests or goals
Bohemian Protestants revolt
The Protestants in Bohemia did not trust Ferdinand II, he was a Catholic and a foreigner.
-In 1618, Protestants in Bohemia revolt against the Catholic Hapsburg ruler of the Czech Kingdom: Ferdinand II
-Ferdinand closed some protestant churches
-Result: Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
-Conflict over Religion, Land and Power
-1st Phase: Hapsburg Victories
-From 1618-1630, Hapsburg Armies from Spain and Austria crush the Protestant Armies
-Crushed the Czech Uprising
-Troops paid by plundering German Villages
Higher Order Question: What effect did the way Hapsburg Armies were paid have on the way people viewed the army and the Hapsburgs?
Answer: Because they were paid through what they plundered- people hated the Hapsburg Armies and resented the Hapsburg Family
Consequence: The intended or unintended result of an action or decision
-In 1630, tide turns in favor of the Protestants
-Gustavus Adolphus (Sweden) and his disciplined army turned the tide of the war
-Drove the Hapsburg Armies out of Northern Germany
-Adolphus killed in battle-1632
The Catholic French Aid The Protestants
-French Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin feared the Hapsburgs more than the Protestants
-Didn’t want any European Rulers to have as much power as the French King
-1635, Richelieu sent French Troops to fight the Hapsburgs
-Thirty Years War Focus: Religion-Power
Higher Order Question: If France is Catholic, Why did they side with the Protestants in the Thirty Years War?
Answer: Cardinal Mazarin and Richelieu feared other European Monarchs would become as powerful as the French King
Concept? Self -Interest
Peace of Westphalia 1648
The Affects of the War
-Germany severely damaged by the war
-Population drops from 20 million to 16 million
-German Economy ruined
-Trade and Agriculture disrupted
European States Formed
France: 843 AD, England 927 AD, Spain 1516 AD, Russia: 1721 AD, Germany 1871 AD
-the devastation of the Thirty Years War was a major reason Germany was one of the last European States to form.
Consequences of The Peace of Westphalia
France was strengthened My receiving German Territory.
-Hapsburgs Weakened: Austria/Spain
-German Princes independent of Holy Roman Emperor
-Ended religious wars in Europe
-States no longer based on religion
-New method of peace negotiation
-All participants meet
-Decide terms of peace
Most Important Result of The Thirty Years War:
-Marks the beginning of the Modern State System
Higher Order Question: Is Religion a major factor in conflicts today?
Answer: Yes, Example: Middle East
States Form In Central Europe
Economic Contrasts With The West
-Weak Empires of Central Europe: Poland, Holy Roman Empire and The Ottoman Empire
Central European Nobles were able to feed the growing population of Western Europe and make huge profits because their costs were so low using serfs as labor.
Why were profits so large?
Answer: very little labor cost.
-Commercial Revolution pulled Serfs from the land, transferring power to monarchs from the nobles
-Economy based on serfs and agriculture
-Nobles pass laws to keep Serfs bound to the land
-Sell grain to Western Europe at huge profits
Self Interest: The Central European Nobles kept serfs bound to the land to keep their profits high.
Weak Empires of Central Europe
In Poland, the Nobles elected the king but sharply limited his powers, did not allow a standing army and gave him very little income.
In The Ottoman Empire, The empire had peaked in 1529 and had been in decline ever since.
The Holy Roman Empire was weakened by the Thirty Years War and there was almost no control over the German Princes.
-Ottoman, Poland and Holy Roman Empires are also weak
Land owning Nobles in Central Europe block growth of the kings’ power
-Nobles pass laws keeping the Serfs bound to the land
Austria Grows Stronger
The Austrian Empire was difficult to control. 1711, Charles VI became ruler and wore three crowns to keep the empire together: Austrian, Hungarian and Bohemian.
-Hapsburgs in Austria take more lands, rule large and diverse empire
-Czechs, Hungarians, Italians, Croations, Germans
Higher Order Question: What tactics might a ruler use to establish stability in a territory with an extremely diverse population?
1. Threat of Force
2. Maintain legal equality of groups
3. Prevent the economic status of the groups from becoming too uneven
Do any of these apply to our country today?
Maria Theresa Inherits the Austrian Throne
Charles VI made agreements with the rulers of Europe to recognize his eldest daughter as heir to all the Hapsburg territories.
-Maria Theresa becomes Empress of Austria, faces years of war
-Her reign was set up as peaceful, but was anything but
-Her main enemy was Prussia
Higher Order Question: What obstacles would a female ruler face during this time period?
Answer: Lack of respect from: male rulers and her own subjects, because of the perceptions of the time period
Prussia Challenges Austria
The Rise of Prussia
King Frederick William, “The Great Elector”, bought the Junkers loyalty by making them officers in the Prussian Army.
-Hohenzollern rulers of Prussia build Europe’s best army: 80,000 troops
-Become absolute monarchs
-Nobles (Junkers) resist royal power, but king buys loyalty
Frederick II “The Great”
Frederick William worried his son was not militaristic enough to rule. Frederick loved music, philosophy and poetry. His father was very strict and when he and a friend ran away he was forced to watch his friend be be-headed.
-Frederick The Great becomes King of Prussia
-Enforces father’s military policies but softens some of his laws
-Believed a ruler should be like a “father” to his people
War of the Austrian Succession
Silesia was important because it produced Iron Ore, Textiles and Food Products.
-In 1740, Frederick starts war against Austria to gain Silesia
-Maria Theresa resists Prussian Power, but loses Silesia in Treaty of Ax La Chapelle 1748
-AS a result of the war, Prussia becomes a major power in Europe
Higher Order Question: What precedent suggests that Frederick the Great’s assumption of women leaders was misguided?
Answer: Queen Elizabeth’s routing of the Spanish Armada in 1588
The Seven Years War 1756-1763
-War of The Austrian Succession
-France Allied with Prussia, Austria Allied with Great Britain
-Seven Years War
-Maria Theresa forms an Alliance with France
-France, Russia and Austria Allied, Prussia and Great Britain Allied
The War In Europe
-In 1756, Frederick attacks Saxony (Austrian Ally)
-Eventually, every great power in Europe was involved in the war
-The result of the war: no territory was gained by anyone in Europe
Results of the War:
-Territorial situation in Europe: unchanged
-France lost it’s colonies in North America
-Great Britain gained dominance over India
Higher Order Question: Why would Frederick the Great’s attack on Saxony result in conflicts in N. america and India?
Answer: France and Great Britain had colonies in both places and were on opposing alliances
These materials were prepared by Harms LLC and have neither been developed, reviewed, nor endorsed by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, publisher of the original WORLD HISTORY: Patterns of Interaction work on which this material is based.
Central European Monarchs Clash Presentation
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Mr. Harms has designed a number of PowerPoint and Keynote presentations to help students understand history. Designed by a teacher for teachers, this PowerPoint focuses on "Central European Monarchs Clash". This presentation is designed to give students an overview of how religion tore apart Central Europe. Students will be shown maps, animations and descriptions detailing these events.
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The Topics include: Thirty Years War, Catholic League, Protestant Union, Hapsburgs, Peace of Westphalia, Hohenzollern, Frederick The Great, Maria Theresa, War of the Austrian Succession, Prussia, Junkers, Treaty of Ax LaChapelle, Seven Years War.
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