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Central European Monarchs Clash PowerPoint

Central European Monarchs Clash Presentation

      Mr. Harms has designed a number of PowerPoint and Keynote presentations to help students understand history. Designed by a teacher for teachers, this PowerPoint focuses on "Central European Monarchs Clash". This presentation is designed to give students an overview of how religion tore apart Central Europe. Students will be shown maps, animations and descriptions detailing these events.

      The presentation is totally customizable, allowing you to add your own pictures, graphics and animations to take what we've done even farther.  It comes with presentation notes to help you discuss the subject and engage students in the events of Theses religious wars. At less than $5.00, it will save you time and lay the foundation for presentations that help students understand and remember. 
The Topics include: Thirty Years War, Catholic League, Protestant Union, Hapsburgs, Peace of Westphalia, Hohenzollern, Frederick The Great, Maria Theresa, War of the Austrian Succession, Prussia, Junkers, Treaty of Ax LaChapelle, Seven Years War.

Number of Slides: 41  $4.10

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McDougal Littel's World History: Patterns of Interaction
Absolutism To Revolution
Central European Monarchs Clashed
Chapter 21, Section 3 "The Reformation Continues"

 Central European Monarchs Clash

PowerPoint and Keynote Presenters Notes

Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction

Chapter 21, Section 3

Presenters Notes, Higher Order Questions, Concepts

Slide 1

Central European Monarchs Clash

Chapter 21 Section 3

Slide 2

Rising Tensions

    -After the Peace of Augsburg, there was a brief peace

        -Tension rises between the Lutherans and Catholics in Central Europe

Slide 3

The Thirty Years War

    -War between the Catholics and Protestants

Slide 4

Christian Division

    -Lutherans join the Protestant Union (1608)

    -Catholic Princes form the Catholic League (1609)

    -Both fear the spread of Calvinism

Slide 5

Alliance: An agreement between two or more parties to advance common interests or goals    

Slide 6

Bohemian Protestants revolt

Slide 7

The Spark

The Protestants in Bohemia did not trust Ferdinand II, he was a Catholic and a foreigner.

    -In 1618, Protestants in Bohemia revolt against the Catholic Hapsburg ruler of the Czech Kingdom: Ferdinand II

    -Ferdinand closed some protestant churches

    -Result: Thirty Years War (1618-1648)

        -Conflict over Religion, Land and Power

Slide 8

Hapsburg Triumphs

    -1st Phase: Hapsburg Victories

        -From 1618-1630, Hapsburg Armies from Spain and Austria crush the Protestant Armies

            -Crushed the Czech Uprising

        -Troops paid by plundering German Villages

Slide 9

Higher Order Question: What effect did the way Hapsburg Armies were paid have on the way people viewed the army and the Hapsburgs?

Answer: Because they were paid through what they plundered- people hated the Hapsburg Armies and resented the Hapsburg Family

Slide 10

Consequence: The intended or unintended result of an action or decision

Slide 11

Hapsburg Defeats

    -In 1630, tide turns in favor of the Protestants

        -Gustavus Adolphus (Sweden) and his disciplined army turned the tide of the war

        -Drove the Hapsburg Armies out of Northern Germany

        -Adolphus killed in battle-1632

Slide 12

The Catholic French Aid The Protestants

    -French Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin feared the Hapsburgs more than the Protestants

        -Didn’t want any European Rulers to have as much power as the French King

        -1635, Richelieu sent French Troops to fight the Hapsburgs

        -Thirty Years War Focus: Religion-Power

Slide 13

Higher Order Question: If France is Catholic, Why did they side with the Protestants in the Thirty Years War?

Answer: Cardinal Mazarin and Richelieu feared other European Monarchs would become as powerful as the French King

Concept?  Self -Interest

Slide 14

Peace of Westphalia 1648

Slide 15

The Affects of the War

    -Germany severely damaged by the war

        -Population drops from 20 million to 16 million

        -German Economy ruined

            -Trade and Agriculture disrupted

Slide 16

European States Formed

France: 843 AD, England 927 AD, Spain 1516 AD, Russia: 1721 AD, Germany 1871 AD

    -the devastation of the Thirty Years War was a major reason Germany was one of the last European States to form.

Slide 17

Consequences of The Peace of Westphalia

France was strengthened My receiving German Territory.

    -Hapsburgs Weakened: Austria/Spain

    -France Strengthened

    -German Princes independent of Holy Roman Emperor

    -Ended religious wars in Europe

    -States no longer based on religion

    -New method of peace negotiation

        -All participants meet

        -Decide terms of peace

Slide 18

Most Important Result of The Thirty Years War:

    -Marks the beginning of the Modern State System

Slide 19

Higher Order Question: Is Religion a major factor in conflicts today?

Answer: Yes, Example: Middle East

Slide 20

States Form In Central Europe

Slide 21

Economic Contrasts With The West

    -Weak Empires of Central Europe: Poland, Holy Roman Empire and The Ottoman Empire

Slide 22

Economic Progress

Central European Nobles were able to feed the growing population of Western Europe and make huge profits because their costs were so low using serfs as labor.

Why were profits so large?  

Answer: very little labor cost.

Western Europe

    -Commercial Revolution pulled Serfs from the land, transferring power to monarchs from the nobles

Central Europe

    -Economy based on serfs and agriculture

        -Nobles pass laws to keep Serfs bound to the land

        -Sell grain to Western Europe at huge profits

Slide 23

Self Interest: The Central European Nobles kept serfs bound to the land to keep their profits high.

Slide 24

Weak Empires of Central Europe

In Poland, the Nobles elected the king but sharply limited his powers, did not allow a standing army and gave him very little income.

In The Ottoman Empire, The empire had peaked in 1529 and had been in decline ever since.

The Holy Roman Empire was weakened by the Thirty Years War and there was almost no control over the German Princes.

    -Ottoman, Poland and Holy Roman Empires are also weak

Slide 25

Land owning Nobles in Central Europe block growth of the kings’ power

    -Nobles pass laws keeping the Serfs bound to the land

Slide 26

Austria Grows Stronger

Slide 27

The Hapsburgs

The Austrian Empire was difficult to control.  1711, Charles VI became ruler and wore three crowns to keep the empire together: Austrian, Hungarian and Bohemian.

    -Hapsburgs in Austria take more lands, rule large and diverse empire

        -Czechs, Hungarians, Italians, Croations, Germans    

Slide 28

Higher Order Question: What tactics might a ruler use to establish stability in a territory with an extremely diverse population?


1. Threat of Force

2. Maintain legal equality of groups

3. Prevent the economic status of the groups from becoming too uneven

Do any of these apply to our country today?

Slide 29

Maria Theresa Inherits the Austrian Throne

Charles VI made agreements with the rulers of Europe to recognize his eldest daughter as heir to all the Hapsburg territories.

    -Maria Theresa becomes Empress of Austria, faces years of war

        -Her reign was set up as peaceful, but was anything but

            -Her main enemy was Prussia

Slide 30

Higher Order Question: What obstacles would a female ruler face during this time period?

Answer: Lack of respect from: male rulers and her own subjects, because of the perceptions of the time period

Slide 31

Prussia Challenges Austria

Slide 32

The Rise of Prussia

King Frederick William, “The Great Elector”, bought the Junkers loyalty by making them officers in the Prussian Army.

    -Hohenzollern rulers of Prussia build Europe’s best army: 80,000 troops

        -Become absolute monarchs

    -Nobles (Junkers) resist royal power, but king buys loyalty

        -Militarized Society

Slide 33

Frederick II “The Great”

Frederick William worried his son was not militaristic enough to rule.  Frederick loved music, philosophy and poetry.  His father was very strict and when he and a friend ran away he was forced to watch his friend be be-headed.

    -Frederick The Great becomes King of Prussia

        -Enforces father’s military policies but softens some of his laws

        -Believed a ruler should be like a “father” to his people

Slide 34

War of the Austrian Succession

Silesia was important because it produced Iron Ore, Textiles and Food Products.

    -In 1740, Frederick starts war against Austria to gain Silesia

    -Maria Theresa resists Prussian Power, but loses Silesia in Treaty of Ax La Chapelle 1748

    -AS a result of the war, Prussia becomes a major power in Europe

Slide 35

Higher Order Question: What precedent suggests that Frederick the Great’s assumption of women leaders was misguided?

Answer: Queen Elizabeth’s routing of the Spanish Armada in 1588

Slide 36

The Seven Years War 1756-1763

Slide 37

Changing Alliances

    -War of The Austrian Succession

        -France Allied with Prussia, Austria Allied with Great Britain

    -Seven Years War

        -Maria Theresa forms an Alliance with France

        -France, Russia and Austria Allied, Prussia and Great Britain Allied

Slide 38

The War In Europe

    -In 1756, Frederick attacks Saxony (Austrian Ally)

        -Eventually, every great power in Europe was involved in the war

        -The result of the war: no territory was gained by anyone in Europe

Slide 39

Results of the War:

    -Territorial situation in Europe: unchanged

    -France lost it’s colonies in North America

    -Great Britain gained dominance over India

Slide 40

Higher Order Question: Why would Frederick the Great’s attack on Saxony result in conflicts in N. america and India?

Answer: France and Great Britain had colonies in both places and were on opposing alliances

Slide 41

The End

These materials were prepared by Harms LLC and have neither been developed, reviewed, nor endorsed by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, publisher of the original WORLD HISTORY: Patterns of Interaction work on which this material is based.