PowerPoint and Keynote Presenters Notes
Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction
Chapter 14, Section 2
Presenters Notes, Higher Order Questions, Concepts
Changes In Medieval Society
Agriculture, Trade and Finance Make Advances
Chapter 14 Section 2
-Cities and towns grew as the population increased
-Interaction with the Muslim and Byzantine Empires sparked an interest in education.
A Growing Food Supply
Change: To Make or Become Different
Changes In Agriculture
-From 800 to 1200 AD the climate warms, opening more land to farming.
-Changes in technology result in more food production
Higher Order Question: What modern technologies have increased food production?
Answer: Chemical Fertilizer, GPS, Bigger and more efficient machinery, Genetic engineering of plants and animals…
Switch To Horsepower
Oxen were much slower than horses but they also were easier to keep because they did not need the quality of feed that horses did. Forests were being cleared in Europe because they now could plow more land.
-Harnessed horses replace oxen in pulling plows and wagons
-Horses plow 3 times as much a day, increasing food supply.
Two Field System
-Up to 800 AD, farmers rotated fields from production to fallow (idle) every year
-50% of lands in production
The Three Field System
The population soared, because when people ate healthier and had more nutrients they could resist disease and live longer.
-Around 800 AD Three Field System used, plant two fields let one rest
-67% of land in production: More food
-Guild: An organization of people in the same business or occupation
Path To Success
-Guilds change the way business was conducted
-Apprentice: Parents paid for training (2-7 Years)
-Journeyman: Worked for pay, worked on a masterpiece
-Master craftsman: Owned the business
Development of Guilds
-Guilds Develop: Organization of people in the same occupation
-Merchant Guilds begin first; they keep prices up, provide security
-Skilled artisans, men and women, form craft guilds.
Guilds set standards for:
-Quality, price, wages, working conditions
Guilds supervise training of new members of their craft
The wealth of guilds influences the economy
Higher Order Question: What modern labor organizations function similar to guilds?
Answer: Labor Unions
Guilds Vs. Unions
-Provide training in a craft
-Regulate quality and price
-Serve workers who pay dues
- No control over quality or price
-Workers in one occupation
-Fight for wages/conditions
-Changes in business and banking
- More workers needed
-Serf’s move to town to get paid
-More cash and lending available
-More capital to start businesses
-Merchant’s power and wealth increase
-Merchant’s taxes increase the kings power
What group’s power is diminishing? King, Noble, Merchants?
Higher Order Question: What does the increase in the merchant’s and King’s power lead to?
Answer: The end of Feudalism
Business and Banking
Buyer-> Money->Merchant (Robber)
-Money is lost!
Business & Banking
-Merchants develop credit to avoid carrying large sums of money
-Merchants take out loans to purchase goods and banking grows
-Cities expand- Serfs move to town
-Economic changes led to the growth of cities and paying jobs
Urban Life flourishes
Growing Urban Population
-1000-1150, Europe’s population rises from 30 million to 42 million
-Most towns are small, but they help drive change
Trade and Towns Grow Together
-Towns are uncomfortable; crowded, dirty, full of fire hazards
-Serfs can become free by living in a town for a year and a day
Higher Order Question: What problems would develop because of the rapid growth of cities?
Answer: 1. Building couldn’t keep pace with the population 2. Water and waste management would overwhelm the system
Merchant Class Shifts The Social Order
The Merchant Class Gains Power
-Feudal lords tax and govern towns, causing resentment
-Towns are taken over by Burghers: town merchants
Traditional Medieval Social Order
-King, Merchants, Nobles, Peasants
The Revival of Learning
-Crusader contact with the Byzantine and Islamic Empire exposed Europeans to Greek and Roman Works again
The Muslim Connection
Greek and Roman works are known as the classics and are the foundation of Western Civilization. The House of Wisdom was a huge collection of books, transcripts and history of knowledge. Jewish scholars translated the the transcripts into Latin.
-Christian Scholars read translations of Greek and Roman works made by Muslims
-Crusaders return with Muslim Knowledge of navigation, ships, weapons and Western Culture (House of Wisdom)
Higher Order Question: Where would we be now, in knowledge, if the Muslims had not saved so much knowledge from Greece and Rome.
Answer: These writings were the basis of our Western culture.
Scholars and The University
-Groups of scholars gather to teach and learn; form universities
-Universities were groups of people
Written works not in Latin but in: Vernacular- everyday language
Higher Order Question: Why do you think most students were from the merchant class?
Answer: The Merchant class could afford to send they kids to school, peasants could not
Aquinas and Medieval Philosophy
Thomas Aquinas wrote a book called “Summa Theologicae” Which argued that the most basic truths about religion could be proved through logical arguments.
-Thomas Aquinas, a religious scholar, mixes Greek and Christian thought
-Argued that most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument
-He is a scholastic- university man; debates issues to increase knowledge
These materials were prepared by Harms LLC and have neither been developed, reviewed, nor endorsed by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, publisher of the original WORLD HISTORY: Patterns of Interaction work on which this material is based.
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Changes In Medieval Society Presentation
Mr. Harms has designed a number of PowerPoint and Keynote presentations to help students understand history. Designed by a teacher for teachers, this PowerPoint focuses on "Changes In Medieval Society". This presentation is designed to give students an overview of how Medieval Society Changed in Europe. Students will be shown maps, animations and descriptions of some of the changes that happened in Medieval Society
The presentation is totally customizable, allowing you to add your own pictures, graphics and animations to take what we've done even farther. It comes with presentation notes to help you discuss the subject and engage students in the events of Medieval Times. At less than $4.00, it will save you time and lay the foundation for presentations that help students understand and remember.
The Topics include: Changes In Agriculture, Development of Guilds, The Commercial Revolution, Business and Banking, The Revival of learning
Number of Slides: 36 $3.60
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Chapter 14, Section 2 "Changes In Medieval Society"