The Cold War:
Superpowers Face Off
Chapter 33 Section 1
Source: Holt-McDougal, World History, Patterns of Interaction Click Here For Preview
-A Continent Destroyed
-Led by the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union the Allies defeat the Axis powers in battles that would decide the outcome of the war.
The Western Allies were suspicious of Stalin because of the Non-Aggression treaty with Hitler and Stalin was suspicious of the West for waiting so long to open a second front in the West. Both sides were opposites to the other ideologically.
-The Yalta Conference: A postwar plan
Yalta is a resort in the Soviet Union on the Crimean Peninsula on the Black Sea.
-The Allies agree to divide Germany into occupation zones:
Germany would have to pay the Soviet Union for it’s loss of life and property. Allied military governments controlled each zone.
-Agreed to join the war against Japan
-Agreed to allowing free elections for Eastern Europeans
Churchill believed Stalin would only honor his pledge if Eastern European countries followed Russian friendly policies.
-The United Nations
-In June of 1945, 50 nations join the United Nations
The intention of the United Nations was to protect nations from aggression.
Question: What international organization preceded the United Nations? Was if effective?
Answer: The League of Nations, It was not effective in stopping aggression
-UN Security Council: 11 members
-Five members with veto power (Permanent: US, China, Russia, France, Great Britain
-United Nations General Assembly
-50 countries: Equal Votes
Question: What inherent problem can you see with the way the Security Council is organized
Answer: With a single country’s veto it would be very difficult to get anything accomplished and history shows that is true.
-Different Circumstances/ Different Goals
United States: USSR:
Deaths: 400,000 Deaths: 22,000,000
Cities & Industries Intact Cities and Industries decimated
Economy: Capitalism Economy: Communism (Stalin’s Version)
United States: USSR:
Spread Democracy Spread Communism
(Stop spread of Communism) (Part of a worldwide workers revolution)
Gain access to markets and Rebuild Soviet Union
resources (By Stripping equipment and resources
(Fuel the huge industry created by from Eastern Europe)
Rebuild European Governments Dominate Eastern Europe
(New markets for U.S. goods) (Create a buffer for Invasion)
Reunite Germany Keep Germany Weak
(Stabilize Europe/Increase Security) (So they cannot become aggressive)
-Eastern Europe’s Iron Curtain
Russia is also a mix of many different cultures and there wasn’t really a strong sense of nationalism in Russia.
-The Soviets build a buffer
-A history of invasion:
Question: Why do you think Russia was invaded so many times?
Answer: 1. No natural barriers 2. History of being behind in industry and technology
-An Iron Curtain divides East and West
-Eastern Europe: Satellite Countries or Puppet Governments
-Potsdam Conference (July 1945)
-Soviets control Eastern Europe
-Stalin installs Communist Governments
-Truman urges free elections; Stalin refuses
-In 1946, Stalin says “Communism and Capitalism cannot co-exist”
Question: Why do you think Stalin believed the West would not go to war with him over Europe?
Answer: Stalin believed that the U.S. put a higher value on human life.
The West would have had to invade the Eastern Block countries as well as engage the very large Soviet Military- something they were very reluctant to do so soon after the war.
-The U.S. Tries to Contain Communism
The idea of guaranteed employment, stable housing and having enough to eat was very appealing to people who did not have those things. “Wherever misery and suffering prevail Communism always sprouts up”
-The Domino Theory
-If one country falls to Communism: More would follow
-Communism was appealing to poor underdeveloped countries
-The Truman Doctrine
The U.S. Congress authorized 400 million dollars for Turkey and Greece.
-The U.S. supports countries that reject Communism
-Congress approves Truman’s request for aid to Greece and Turkey
-The Marshall Plan
The Marshall Plan was designed to help Europe recover and rebuild. The aid provided food, materials and equipment. As Congress debated, Czechoslovakia turned Communist and the legislation passed quickly. The program cost 12.5 Billion in 1948 Dollars roughly 113 Billion in 2012 dollars.
-Most of Western Europe lay in ruins after WWII
-Marshall Plan: U.S. program of assistingWestern European countries
-Congress approves plan after Communist takeover of Czechoslovakia
The Marshall Plan was a huge success even Yugoslavia received aid after it broke with Moscow.
-Allied Forces Withdraw
Stalin was furious about the unification of Western Germany (Federal Republic of Germany) Stalin wanted Germany splintered and weak-permanently. The Soviet Sector would eventually become the German Democratic Republic.
-In 1948, United States, Britain, France, withdraw forces from Germany
-Their former occupation zones form one country: West Germany
-A Divided Berlin
Stalin believed the West would give up West Berlin, but he was wrong.
-The Soviets cut off all road access to West Berlin
-The Berlin Airlift
At this time West Berlin’s population would have been around 1-1.5 million people.
-Truman chooses a less direct way to confront Soviet Aggression.
-U.S. airlifts supplies to Berlin
-Airlift lasts for 11 months: Soviets lift blockade in May 1949
-The Cold War: Divides the World
-Struggle of U.S. and U.S.S.R. using every means short of war.
-Tools of the Trade:
-Spying, Propaganda, Diplomacy, Covert Operations
-In 1949, The U.S., Canada and Western European countries form NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
-In 1955, Soviets and Eastern European Nations sign Warsaw Pact Alliance
In general, the world was now divided into two camps- NATO and Warsaw Pact: East vs West!
-The Berlin Wall
-In 1961, Soviets build the Berlin Wall
-Sealed West Berlin from East Germany
Stops East Germans from escaping to the West.
-The Threat of Nuclear War
After The Soviets developed the Atomic Bomb, Truman authorized the research to develop a more powerful thermonuclear weapon: Hydrogen Bomb.
-Soviet Union explodes it’s first Atomic Bomb in 1949.
-U.S. & Soviets both develop more powerful Hydrogen Bomb
In 1952, the US exploded it’s first Hydrogen bomb, the Soviets followed in 1953.
-Thousands of times more powerful than an Atom Bomb
-Fusion: Fusing two atoms together
-Atomic Bomb triggers the reaction
-Arms Race (Nuclear Weapons)
The arms race between the U.S. and the USSR would go on for four decades. At one point, Both sides could destroy the world over 250 times. Overkill?
-Increasing tensions lead to military build-up by U.S. and Soviets
1953- President Eisenhower appointed John Foster Dulles as Secretary of State. Dulles warned the Soviets that if they attacked any U.S. interests the U.S. would “retaliate instantly, by means and places of our own choosing”
-Both sides willing to go to the brink of conflict
-But not over the cliff
-The Cold War in The Skies
-In 1957, Soviets develop an ICBM
-Intercontinental Ballistic Missile
-Estimated time from launch to detonation: 30 Minutes!
-Missiles are launched from one continent to another
-Missiles may carry multiple warheads to shower a target.
The United States began pouring massive amounts of money into schools to help develop science education. Sputnik scared the country that we were falling behind.
-Soviets shock the West
-In 1957, Soviets launch Sputnik, first unmanned satellite.
The U.S. launched a satellite in 1958.
-Apollo Moon Program
President Kennedy challenged the country to put a man on the moon and return him safely to Earth at Rice University 1962, before the end of the decade.
-The U.S. ramped up it’s science education out of fear of being behind the Russians
-In 1969, the United States put a man on the moon and returned them safely to Earth.
Mr. Harms has designed a number of PowerPoint and Keynote presentations to help students understand history. Designed by a teacher for teachers, this PowerPoint focuses on "Cold War Superpowers Face Off". This presentation is designed to give them an overview of the events leading up to and during the Cold War. Students will be shown maps, animations and descriptions of some of the major events leading to the Cold War.
The presentation is totally customizable, allowing you to add your own pictures, graphics and animations to take what we've done even farther. It comes with presentation notes to help you discuss the subject and engage them in the events of the Cold War. At less than $5.00, it will save you time and lay the foundation for presentations that help students understand and remember.
The Topics include: Cold War, Yalta Conference, Joseph Stalin, United Nations, Security Council, United States, Soviet Union, Communism, Iron Curtain, Satellite Countries, Capitalism, Domino Theory, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, Berlin Airlift, NATO, Warsaw Pact, Berlin Wall, Atomic Bomb, Hydrogen Bomb, Arms Race, Brinksmanship, ICBM, Sputnik, Apollo.
Number of Slides: 43 $4.30
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