Interactive and engaging History lesson plans

      Mr. Harms has designed a number of PowerPoint and Keynote presentations to help students understand history. Designed by a teacher for teachers, this PowerPoint focuses on "The European Enlightenment". This presentation is designed to give students an overview of the major thinkers of the Enlightenment period. Students will be shown animations and descriptions explaining the thoughts of these great writers.

      The presentation is totally customizable, allowing you to add your own pictures, graphics and animations to take what we've done even farther.  It comes with presentation notes to help you discuss the subject and engage students in the events of African History. At $4.10, it will save you time and lay the foundation for presentations that help students understand and remember. 
The Topics include: Reason, Government Systems, Scientific Revolution, The Enlightenment, The Age of Reason, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Social Contract, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Beccaria, Mary Astell, Mary Wollstonecraft.

Number of Slides: 41 $4.10

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2.    Power Point Presentation
3.    Text edit file of the outline of the presentation and presenter's notes.

(The package is a digital download (Zip File) of these three items.

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McDougal Littel's World History: Patterns of Interaction
Absolutism To Revolution
Chapter 22 Enlightenment and Revolution
Section 2 "The Enlightenment In Europe"

The Enlightenment In Europe

Preview Video

The Enlightenment In Europe
PowerPoint and Keynote Presenter’s Notes
Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction
Chapter 22, Section 2
Presenters Notes
Slide 1
The Enlightenment In Europe
-Chapter 22 Section 2
Slide 2
The Institutions or systems which make up the government of a nation?
Government Systems
Slide 3
Scientific Revolution led to the Enlightenment
-Prompted new ways of thinking
-Led to new Ideas:
Slide 4
The Age of Reason
    -Reason & Thought
    -The power of the individual to solve problems
Slide 5
Two Views on Government:
    -Thomas Hobbes
    -John Locke
Slide 6
Hobbes and Locke were political thinkers of the 1600’s that witnessed political turmoil in England
    -They came to very different conclusions about government
Slide 7
Thomas Hobbes
    -Believed in the absolute power of the ruler
Slide 8
Hobbes Social Contract
-Hobbes’s book: Leviathan (1651)
    -The English Civil War convinced Hobbes that all humans were naturally selfish and wicked.
    -Without governments to keep order, life would be brutal
Slide 9
Hobbes Believed
-People should surrender their individual rights to the ruler in exchange for security and law and order: The Social Contract
Slide 10
The Leviathan (Sea Monster)
-Hobbes reference of a sea monster or something with absolute power
    -Hobbes advocated for an absolute monarch that could impose order and demand obedience
Slide 11


-Old Idea: God, Divine Right-gives rulers power.

-New Idea: The people give government the power

Slide 12

What are some arguments for and against an absolute monarchy as proposed by Hobbes?

-For: Creates Law & Order

-Against: Abuse of Power

Slide 13

John Locke

-Believed that people could learn and govern themselves (Self-Government)

Slide 14


-Locke believed people could learn and improve themselves

    -People can govern their own affairs and look after society

Slide 15

Locke’s Beliefs

-All people are born free and equal

-Natural Rights:




-Purpose of government:

    -Protect Rights

Slide 16

-If the government fails to protect those rights:

    -The people have the right to overthrow it

Slide 17

John Locke

    -Locke’s belief that the power to govern comes from the people is the foundation of modern democracy.

    -This inspired movements for liberty in Europe and America

Slide 18

What document in U.S. History reflects some of Locke’s ideas about Life, Liberty and Property?

The Declaration of Independence

Slide 19

The Philosophes Advocate Reason

-The Enlightenment reaches it’s height in France in the 1700’s

        Philosophes is the French word for philosopher.

Slide 20


-Applied to all aspects of life

-5 Main concepts

    -Reason: Truth can be discovered through reason

    -Nature: What was natural is good

    -Happiness: People should seek happiness on Earth

Happiness: This was at odds with Medieval thinking that people should only look forward to the after-life and not seek happiness on earth.

        -Progress: Society and humankind could improve

        -Liberty: Liberties the English people had

Liberty: Philosophes believed everyone should have the rights won by the English people in the Glorious Revolution and the English Civil War.

Slide 21


-Voltaire used Satire against Clergy, Aristocracy and the government

*-Francois Marie Arouet: Pen Name Voltaire, published more than 70 times for political essays, philosophy and drama.  He was imprisoned and exiled to England for two years.

*-Satire: the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues.

Slide 22

Shared beliefs about what is good-bad, right-wrong, or desirable-undesirable / specific statements that people hold to be true.

Values & Beliefs

Slide 23

Voltaire’s Beliefs

-Voltaire fought for:



    -Freedom: Religious Belief

    -Freedom of Speech

-Voltaire Fought Against:




Slide 24

What is the meaning of Voltaire’s famous quotation: “I do not agree with a word you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it”

You have the right to say what you think, even if others disagree.

Slide 25


-Believed that Great Britain was the best government of his time. Separation of powers was his passion.

    -Wrote”On the Spirit of Laws” 1748

-influential French Writer: Baron de Montesquieu, studied political liberty.

Slide 26

Government of Great Britain

    -Executive: King & Ministers

        -Carried out laws of the state

    -Legislative Branch: Parliament

        -Made the laws

    -Judicial: Judges

        -Interpreted the law

Slide 27

Montesquieu’s Idea of Government

    -Executive: King & Ministers

        -Carried out laws of the state

    -Legislative Branch: Parliament

        -Made the laws

    -Judicial: Judges

        -Interpreted the law

-Power should be a check on power “Checks & Balances”

Slide 28

How does power check power in today’s U.S. government?

Three government branches, each with limited powers

Slide 29


-Believed that civilization corrupted people’s natural goodness.

-“Man is born free, and and everywhere he is in chains”

Jean Jacques Rousseau- son of a poor Swiss watchmaker and controversial essay writer of the enlightenment.

Slide 30

Rousseau Believed

-People Create Government

    -Legitimate Government comes from the consent of the governed

-The Social Contract

Slide 31

Direct Democracy

-1762 Rousseau’s “The Social Contract”

    -All people are equal

        -Abolish all titles of nobility

        -Believed that people should give up personal freedoms for the common good.

Slide 32


-Focused on the justice system

    -Laws exist to preserve social order, not avenge crimes.

Cesare Bonesana Beccaria: Italian Philosophe

Slide 33

Beccaria’s Beliefs

-Governments should seek the greatest good for the greatest number of people

    -No Torturing: suspects or witnesses

    -No cruel punishments

    -Speedy Trial

    -Punishment based on seriousness of crime

    -Capital Punishment: Abolished

Slide 34

Women and the Enlightenment

-The Philosophes challenged many things about government, but were very conservative on women’s issues

Slide 35

Mary Astell

-Woman writer who tried to improve the status of women

    -Wrote “A Serious Proposal to The Ladies” 1694

Slide 36

“If absolute sovereignty be not necessary in a state, how comes it to be so in a family? If all men are born free, how is it all women are born slaves?”

Slide 37

Mary Wollstonecraft

-Woman writer who tried to improve the status of women

    -Wrote “A vindication of the rights of women” 1792

    -Advocated for women to hold male positions.

Slide 38

The Legacy of the Enlightenment

Slide 39

Writers Challenge Society

    -Divine Right of Monarchs

    -The Union of Church & State

    -Unequal Social Classes

*-The writers of the Enlightenment shown light on subjects of the day that they felt needed reform.

Slide 40

Three Long Term Effects

-Belief In Progress

-Secular Outlook: Non Religious

-The Rise of Individualism

    -Explain what these three things mean to you

Slide 41

The End
These materials were prepared by Harms LLC and have neither been developed, reviewed, nor endorsed by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, publisher of the original WORLD HISTORY: Patterns of Interaction work on which this material is based.