Fascism Rises In Europe
PowerPoint and Keynote Presenters Notes
Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction
Chapter 31, Section 3
Presenters Notes, Higher Order Questions, Concepts
Fascism Rises In Europe
Chapter 31 Section 1
Totalitarianism: Government control of all aspects of public and private lives
Countries Lose Faith In democracy- Turn To Fascism
-Many people frustrated by peace treaties and the Great Depression
Fascism: A political philosophy, movement or regime that exalts nation and often race above the individual and stands for a centralized government headed by a dictator.
-Severe economic and social regimentation
-Forcible suppression of the opposition
Higher Order Question: What is the main focus of Fascism and Communism?
Answer: The State
Fascism’s Rise In Italy
New Political Movement
-Fascism is new, militant political movement
-Emphasizes nationalism and loyalty to an authoritarian leader
-The Rods: All the political parties
-The Strap: Fascist Party holds the parties together (Strength)
-The Roman Ax: Militarism
Compare & Contrast: Communism and Fascism
-Communism & Fascism:
-Ruled by a dictator
-One Party Rule
-Denied Individual Rights
-State Is Supreme
-Class has it’s place
Mussolini Takes Control
Mussolini was a veteran of WWI and then became a newspaper editor. He founded the Fascist Party in 1919.
Leadership: To be responsible for guiding a group of people or nation
-Over the Paris Peace Conference
-Italians expected to gain large chunks of territory
-Widespread Unemployment and Rising Inflation
-Leads to Social Unrest
-Italians want a leader who will take action
-Groups of Fascists attacked rival groups: Communists and Socialists
-Played into the fears of the industrialists, Aristocrats and Middle Class- winning their support
-October 1922: 30,000 Fascists march on Rome
Emanuel Gives In To The Fascists and People
-Fascist Party Leader, Benito Mussolini, promises to rescue Italy
-Italian King puts Mussolini in charge of government
-Mussolini takes power legally, but claims it was “violent takeover”
The King felt Mussolini was the best chance for his dynasty to survive. The threat of widespread revolt helped the king make his decision.
Il Duce’s Leadership “The Leader”
-Mussolini take firm control of politics, media and the economy in Italy
-Outlaws all political parties except the Fascists
-Secret Police jail his opponents
-Mussolini never had total control like Hitler and Stalin
Higher Order Question: Why did Mussolini’s popularity increase as the economy declined?
Answer: He offered leadership and change
Hitler Rises To Power In Germany
A New Power
-Adolf Hitler: Obscure political figure in 1920’s Germany
-Served in WWI
-Found the NSDAP while spying for the army
-National Socialist German Workers Party
Austrian born, Hitler volunteered for the German Army. He won the Iron Cross twice for bravery.
The Brown Shirts “Storm Troopers”
-Private Militia of the Nazi Party
-Harasses and physically attacks Nazi opponents, Jew and other minority groups
-The SA had grown to 2 million men by 1934
-German Army was 100,000
Militarism: Policy of glorifying military power and being prepared for war
The Rise of The Nazis
-Nazism: German brand of Fascism
-Hitler becomes Nazi Leader, plots to seize national power
-Der Fuhrer “The Leader”
The Nazis didn’t invent the Swastika, it appears in many ancient civilizations: Greek, Celtic, Byzantine and Buddhist inscriptions
The Beer Hall Putsch
-November 1923, Nazis attempt to takeover the government
-Nazis storm out of a beer hall and march on the government
-Hitler and other Nazis were arrested
-Sentenced to 5 years, served 9 months
The Nazis were inspired by Mussolini’s March on Rome. Didn’t have quite the same effect.
-Hitler’s Book: “My Struggle”
-Describes his beliefs and goals
-Germans are the “Master Race”
-Jews, Gypsies and Slavs are Inferior
-Germans turn to Hitler after the economy collapses
Mein Kamph was written while Hitler was imprisoned.
Lebensraum: Living Space In The East
-Hitler believed that Germany was overcrowded
-Believed that Germans needed more living space
-Wanted to conquer inferior peoples to the East: Poland, Czechoslovakia and The Soviet Union
A Tangled Financial Web
-Frightened, the German People turned to Hitler for strong leadership
Hitler Becomes Chancellor
-Conservatives believe they can control him as Chancellor
Higher Order Question: What personal characteristics enabled Hitler to become a popular leader?
Answer: Organization, Great Speaker, Persistent and Driven
Hitler’s New Power
-By 1932, Nazis largest political party
-Hitler named Chancellor
-Turns Germany into Totalitarian State
-Uses brutal tactics to eliminate enemies
Once in office, Hitler called for new elections. 6 days before the elections, The Parliament building burned down. The Nazis blamed the Communists and fear helped them win a majority.
The Fuhrer is Supreme
-Hitler takes control of every aspect of German Life
-SS: Protection squad loyal to Hitler
-Gestapo: Secret Police
-Propaganda: Total control of the Media
The SS or Schutzstaffel, was loyal only to Hitler. Hitler’s private guard arrested and murded thousands of Hitler’s opponents.
Controlling the Economy
-Hitler bans Labor Unions and Strikes
-Hitler puts people to work building highways, factories and swelling the military.
Hitler Makes War on the Jews
-Anti-Semitism: Hatred of Jews
-Jews: Scapegoats (Less than 1% of the population)
-Nuremburg Laws: Nazis deprive Jews of rights
-Krystallnacht: Night of the broken glass
Other Countries Fall To Dictators
The World Is Divided
-Most of Eastern Europe falls to dictators
-Only Czechoslovakia retains Democratic Government
-World splits into two camps: Democratic and Totalitarian
Dictatorships took many forms: Some were kingdoms like Rumania that cracked down on it’s own people and suspended constitutions.
These materials were prepared by Harms LLC and have neither been developed, reviewed, nor endorsed by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, publisher of the original WORLD HISTORY: Patterns of Interaction work on which this material is based.
Fascism Rises In Europe Presentation
Mr. Harms has designed a number of PowerPoint and Keynote presentations to help students understand history. Designed by a teacher for teachers, this PowerPoint focuses on "Fascism Rises In Europe". This presentation is designed to give students an overview of the development of Fascism in Italy and Germany. Students will be shown maps, animations and descriptions of some of the major events leading to the rise of Hitler and Mussolini.
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The Topics include: Subjects: Mussolini, Blackshirts, King Victor Emmanuel, Adolf Hitler, NSDAP, Germany, Italy, Brown Shirts, Nazi Party, Beer Hall Putsch, Mein Kampf, Lebensraum, Chancellor, Fuhrer, Nuremberg Laws, Krystall Nacht, Authoritarian, Dictators
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