Luther Leads The Reformation
PowerPoint and Keynote Presenters Notes
Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction
Chapter 17, Section 3
Presenters Notes, Higher Order Questions, Concepts
Luther Leads The Reformation
-Chapter 17, Section 3
-A system of beliefs, symbols and rituals that guide human behavior, gives meaning to life and unites believers into a community
A Change In Priorities (900’s To 1400’s AD)
-Spiritual: God & The Church, Community
-Secular: Wealth & Power, Individual
The Church Dominates Religious Life
-The Roman Catholic Church was not without critics
-People felt the Church was too interested in worldly issues.
-The Church did reform during the Middle Ages
Causes of The Reformation
-Humanism and Secularism caused people to question the Church
-Printing Press spread ideas against the Church
-Monarchs challenge Church Authority
-Political rulers viewed the Pope as a foreign ruler and challenged his authority
-European Rulers jealous of the Church’s wealth
-Merchants and others resented paying taxes to the Church
-Some Church officials had become worldly and corrupt
-Some people saw indulgences as unacceptable
Criticism Leads To Rebellion
Luther wanted to be a good Christian, he had no intention of leading a rebellion against the church. He became a monk and taught scripture at the University of Wittenberg in Saxony (Germany)
Martin Luther’s protest over abuses in the Catholic Church lead to the founding of Protestant Churches
Spreading Ideas (Printing Press)
-Secularism, individualism of Renaissance challenge Church authority
-Printing Press spreads Secular Ideas
Higher Order Question: Why did German Rulers want to challenge the political authority of the Church.
Answer: 1. Resented distant control 2. Wanted political power for themselves
Criticisms of the Catholic Church
-Corrupt leaders, extravagant Popes
-Fight wars, pursue personal pleasures
-Poorly educated priests
-Illiterate, drank and gambled
Early Calls For Reform
-John Wycliffe and Jan Hus stress Bible’s authority over the clergy (Late 1300’s-Early 1400’s AD)
-Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More are more vocal critics of the Church, 1500’s (Humanists)
Less Control/More Access
-Biblia: Domini est terra, et plenitudo
-Bible in Latin
-Only the Church could interpret
-Bible: The Lord is my Shepherd
-Bible in Vernacular
-Printing Press: More access/interpretation
Europe Was Ripe For Change
-The Power of The Church
-People question the Church
-The Printing Press
Luther Challenges The Church
Concept: Values & Beliefs
-Shared beliefs about what is good-bad, right-wrong, specific statements that people hold to be true.
The 95 Theses
-Martin Luther protests Friar John Tetzel’s selling of indulgences
-To build St. Peter’s
-Indulgence: a pardon releasing a person from penalty for a sin.
-In 1517, Luther posts his 95 Theses attacking “pardon-merchants”
-Luther’s These circulates throughout Germany
-Luther launches the “Reformation”- a movement for religious reform.
-Reformation rejects Pope’s Authority
-People can win salvation by faith
-Christian Teachings must be based on the Bible, not the Pope
-All people with faith are equal, can interpret Bible without priests
The Reformation couldn’t have happened in a more perfect place. The German States were very independent and resented any outside authority either Pope or Emperor.
Response To Luther
-Luther was shocked by how rapidly his ideas had spread and how quickly people began to follow him.
Luther stood around a fire with his students and burned the Pope’ s decree!
The Pope’s Threat
-Pope Leo X issues decree threatening to excommunicate Luther (1520)
-Luther’s rights of Church membership are taken away
-Luther refuses to take back his statements and is excommunicated
“I abound by the scriptures I have quoted and my conscience is captive to the word of God.I cannot and I will not, retract anything since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience. I cannot do otherwise, here I stand, may God help me. Amen. Martin Luther
The Emperor’s Opposition
-Charles V is Holy Roman Emperor
-He issues Edict of Worms (1521), declaring Luther a heretic
Luther and followers begin a separate religious group- Lutherans.
Many German peasants rejected Luther’s leadership because of his call to crush their rebellion.
The Peasants Revolt
-Inspired by the Reformation, German Peasants seek an end to Serfdom (1524)
-Luther tells Princes to crush the peasants
-Princes crush revolt; about 100,000 people die
Higher Order Question: Why do you think Luther refused to support the peasants in their revolt?
Answer: Luther’s revolt was a spiritual matter and the peasants revolt was political.
Germany At War
Charles V was militarily victorious, he was still not able to control the German Princes. Weary of fighting, he signed the Peace of Augsburg.
-Some princes side with Luther, become known as Protestants
-Charles V fails to return rebellious princes to Catholic Church
-Peace of Augsburg (1555), each prince can decide religion of his state
Fragmentation of the Christian Church
-Early Christian Church Splits into: (Schism 1054)
-Roman Catholic (Reformation 1500’s)
-Nearly 20% of Christians today are Protestant
England Becomes Protestant
-Henry VIII breaks with the Catholic Church for political and personal reasons, not religion
-Henry’s older brother Arthur was to be king. He married Catherine of Aragon (Spain).
-Arthur died, Henry Married his dead brothers wife. When Catherine cannot produce a male heir, Henry wants a divorce.
-Anne Boleyn was falsely accused of having an affair with her brother and several other men.
-Jane Seymour was Henry’s Love and died 12 days after Edward’s birth
-Anne of Cleves was unattractive and smelled. (Blind Marriage) The king never slept with her and divorced her quietly.
-Catherine Howard was young (16) Henry (49) and she had an affair with her music teacher: Thomas Culpeper. both were beheaded.
Katherine Parr took good care of the sick and ailing King, almost like his nurse.
-Henry Marries Catherine of Aragon
-Henry Marries Anne Boleyn
-Henry Marries Jane Seymour
-Jane Dies: Chld
-Henry Marries Anne of Cleves
-Henry Marries Catherine Howard
-Henry Marries Catherine Parr
Henry Breaks With The Church
The Pope refuses the request for annulment because he doesn’t want to offend Catherine’s nephew: Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
-Henry has only a daughter, needs a son (heir) to rule England
-Henry wants a divorce; Pope refuses to annul: set aside his first marriage to Catherine of Aragon
The Reformation Parliament
-Parliament passes laws ending the Pope’s power in England
-Henry remarries, becomes head of England’s church (Act of Supremacy)
-Thomas More refuses to go against Catholic Church and is beheaded.
Consequences of Henry’s Changes
-Henry has six wives and three children
-Religious turmoil follows Henry’s death 1547
-Henry devout Catholic “Defender of The Faith”
-Henry Breaks from the Catholic Church
-Edward VI pushes Protestant Reforms
-Mary Takes England back to Catholicism
-Elizabeth returns England to Protestantism
Elizabeth Restores Protestantism
Elizabeth is Anne Boleyn’s daughter
-Henry’s 2nd daughter, Queen Elizabeth I, forms Anglican Church
-Anglican Church is acceptable to moderate Catholics and Protestants
Higher Order Question: Did Queen Elizabeth believe in Separation of Church and State? (Support Your Answer)
Answer: Elizabeth created a state Church that was the only legal church in England that she was head of
Elizabeth Faces Other Challenges
-Some Protestants and Catholics oppose Elizabeth
-Phillip II, Catholic King of Spain, threatens England
-Elizabeth’s need for money brings conflict with Parliament
These materials were prepared by Harms LLC and have neither been developed, reviewed, nor endorsed by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, publisher of the original WORLD HISTORY: Patterns of Interaction work on which this material is based.
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The Topics include: Martin Luther, Causes of the Reformation, Criticism leads to rebellion, 95 Theses, Luther's teachings, German Peasant War, Peace of Augsburg, Henry VIII, Reformation Parliament, Queen Elizabeth.
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