Luther Leads The Reformation

PowerPoint and Keynote Presenters Notes

Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction

Chapter 17, Section 3

Presenters Notes, Higher Order Questions, Concepts

Slide 1

Luther Leads The Reformation

    -Chapter 17, Section 3

Slide 2

Concept: Religion

-A system of beliefs, symbols and rituals that guide human behavior, gives meaning to life and unites believers into a community

Slide 3

A Change In Priorities (900’s To 1400’s AD)

    -Spiritual: God & The Church, Community

    -Secular: Wealth & Power, Individual

Slide 4

The Church Dominates Religious Life

    -The Roman Catholic Church was not without critics

        -People felt the Church was too interested in worldly issues.

    -The Church did reform during the Middle Ages

Slide 5

Causes of The Reformation

Slide 6


    -Humanism and Secularism caused people to question the Church

    -Printing Press spread ideas against the Church


    -Monarchs challenge Church Authority

    -Political rulers viewed the Pope as a foreign ruler and challenged his authority


    -European Rulers jealous of the Church’s wealth

    -Merchants and others resented paying taxes to the Church


    -Some Church officials had become worldly and corrupt

    -Some people saw indulgences as unacceptable

Slide 7

Criticism Leads To Rebellion

Slide 8

Luther wanted to be a good Christian, he had no intention of leading a rebellion against the church.  He became a monk and taught scripture at the University of Wittenberg in Saxony (Germany)

Martin Luther’s protest over abuses in the Catholic Church lead to the founding of Protestant Churches

Slide 9

Spreading Ideas (Printing Press)

    -Secularism, individualism of Renaissance challenge Church authority

        -Printing Press spreads Secular Ideas

Slide 10

Higher Order Question: Why did German Rulers want to challenge the political authority of the Church.

Answer: 1. Resented distant control 2. Wanted political power for themselves

Slide 11

Criticisms of the Catholic Church

Slide 12

-Corrupt leaders, extravagant Popes

    -Fight wars, pursue personal pleasures

-Poorly educated priests

    -Illiterate, drank and gambled

Slide 13

Early Calls For Reform

Slide 14

-John Wycliffe and Jan Hus stress Bible’s authority over the clergy (Late 1300’s-Early 1400’s AD)

-Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More are more vocal critics of the Church, 1500’s (Humanists)

Slide 15

Less Control/More Access

-Middle Ages

    -Biblia: Domini est terra, et plenitudo

        -Bible in Latin

        -Only the Church could interpret


    -Bible: The Lord is my Shepherd

        -Bible in Vernacular

        -Printing Press: More access/interpretation

Slide 16

Europe Was Ripe For Change

    -The Power of The Church

        -People question the Church

        -The Printing Press

Slide 17

Luther Challenges The Church

Slide 18

Concept: Values & Beliefs

-Shared beliefs about what is good-bad, right-wrong, specific statements that people hold to be true.

Slide 19

The 95 Theses

    -Martin Luther protests Friar John Tetzel’s selling of indulgences

        -To build St. Peter’s

        -Indulgence: a pardon releasing a person from penalty for a sin.

    -In 1517, Luther posts his 95 Theses attacking “pardon-merchants”

Slide 20

-Luther’s These circulates throughout Germany

-Luther launches the “Reformation”- a movement for religious reform.

-Reformation rejects Pope’s Authority

Slide 21

Luther’s Teachings

    -People can win salvation by faith

    -Christian Teachings must be based on the Bible, not the Pope

    -All people with faith are equal, can interpret Bible without priests

Slide 22

The Reformation couldn’t have happened in a more perfect place.  The German States were very independent and resented any outside authority either Pope or Emperor.

Response To Luther

    -Luther was shocked by how rapidly his ideas had spread and how quickly people began to follow him.

Slide 23

Luther stood around a fire with his students and burned the Pope’ s decree!

The Pope’s Threat

    -Pope Leo X issues decree threatening to excommunicate Luther (1520)

    -Luther’s rights of Church membership are taken away

    -Luther refuses to take back his statements and is excommunicated

Slide 24

“I abound by the scriptures I have quoted and my conscience is captive to the word of God.I cannot and I will not, retract anything since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience. I cannot do otherwise, here I stand, may God help me. Amen. Martin Luther

Slide 25

The Emperor’s Opposition

    -Charles V is Holy Roman Emperor

    -He issues Edict of Worms (1521), declaring Luther a heretic

    Luther and followers begin a separate religious group- Lutherans.

Slide 26

Many German peasants rejected Luther’s leadership because of his call to crush their rebellion.

The Peasants Revolt

    -Inspired by the Reformation, German Peasants seek an end to Serfdom (1524)

        -Luther tells Princes to crush the peasants

    -Princes crush revolt; about 100,000 people die

Slide 27

Higher Order Question: Why do you think Luther refused to support the peasants in their revolt?

Answer: Luther’s revolt was a spiritual matter and the peasants revolt was political.

Slide 28

Germany At War

Charles V was militarily victorious, he was still not able to control the German Princes.  Weary of fighting, he signed the Peace of Augsburg.

    -Some princes side with Luther, become known as Protestants

    -Charles V fails to return rebellious princes to Catholic Church

    -Peace of Augsburg (1555), each prince can decide religion of his state

Slide 29

Fragmentation of the Christian Church

    -Early Christian Church Splits into: (Schism 1054)

        -Eastern Orthodox

        -Roman Catholic (Reformation 1500’s)










        -Nearly 20% of Christians today are Protestant

Slide 30

England Becomes Protestant

    -Henry VIII breaks with the Catholic  Church for political and personal reasons, not religion

Slide 31

Henry’s Path

-Henry’s older brother Arthur was to be king.  He married Catherine of Aragon (Spain). 

-Arthur died, Henry Married his dead brothers wife.  When Catherine cannot produce a male heir, Henry wants a divorce. 

-Anne Boleyn was falsely accused of having an affair with her brother and several other men.

-Jane Seymour was Henry’s Love and died 12 days after Edward’s birth

-Anne of Cleves was unattractive and smelled.  (Blind Marriage) The king never slept with her and divorced her quietly.

-Catherine Howard was young (16) Henry (49) and she had an affair with her music teacher: Thomas Culpeper.  both were beheaded.

Katherine Parr took good care of the sick and ailing King, almost like his nurse. 

    -Henry Marries Catherine of Aragon

        -Daughter: Mary

        -Divorces Catherine

    -Henry Marries Anne Boleyn

        -Daughter: Elizabeth

        -Anne Beheaded

    -Henry Marries Jane Seymour

        -Son: Edward

        -Jane Dies: Chld

    -Henry Marries Anne of Cleves

        -Divorces Anne

    -Henry Marries Catherine Howard

        -Catherine Executed

    -Henry Marries Catherine Parr

        -Henry Dies

Slide 32

Henry Breaks With The Church

The Pope refuses the request for annulment because he doesn’t want to offend Catherine’s nephew: Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

    -Henry has only a daughter, needs a son (heir) to rule England

    -Henry wants a divorce; Pope refuses to annul: set aside his first marriage to Catherine of Aragon

Slide 31

The Reformation Parliament

    -Parliament passes laws ending the Pope’s power in England

    -Henry remarries, becomes head of England’s church (Act of Supremacy)

    -Thomas More refuses to go against Catholic Church and is beheaded.

Slide 32

Consequences of Henry’s Changes

    -Henry has six wives and three children

    -Religious turmoil follows Henry’s death 1547

        -Henry devout Catholic “Defender of The Faith”

        -Henry Breaks from the Catholic Church

        -Edward VI pushes Protestant Reforms

        -Mary Takes England back to Catholicism

        -Elizabeth returns England to Protestantism

Slide 33

Elizabeth Restores Protestantism

Elizabeth is Anne Boleyn’s daughter

    -Henry’s 2nd daughter, Queen Elizabeth I, forms Anglican Church

    -Anglican Church is acceptable to moderate Catholics and Protestants

Slide 34

Higher Order Question: Did Queen Elizabeth believe in Separation of Church and State? (Support Your Answer)

Answer: Elizabeth created a state Church that was the only legal church in England that she was head of

Slide 35

Elizabeth Faces Other Challenges

    -Some Protestants and Catholics oppose Elizabeth

    -Phillip II, Catholic King of Spain, threatens England

    -Elizabeth’s need for money brings conflict with Parliament

Slide 36

The End

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The Topics include: Martin Luther, Causes of the Reformation, Criticism leads to rebellion, 95 Theses, Luther's teachings, German Peasant War, Peace of Augsburg, Henry VIII, Reformation Parliament, Queen Elizabeth.

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