Napoleon’s Empire Collapses
PowerPoint and Keynote Presenter’s Notes
Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction
Chapter 23, Section 4
Presenters Notes, Higher Order Questions, Concepts
Napoleon’s Empire Collapses
Chapter 23 Section 4
Nationalism: A sentiment or sense of belonging and pride for your country
Napoleon’s conquests aroused nationalistic feelings across Europe and contributed to his downfall
Question: Can anyone think of a more recent situation where nationalism contributed to the break up of a country?
-Splitting off Culturally Distinct Groups
-Yugoslavia 1989- Yugoslavia 1992
-Napoleon feared his empire would crumble after he was gone- without an heir
-His wife , Josephine, failed to bear him a child (heir)
-Napoleon divorced Josephine and married an Austrian Princess, Marie Louise, who gave him an heir
Napoleon deeply loved Josephine but the Empire was more important to him. Napoleon II was born as the King of Rome.
Napoleon’s Costly Mistakes
-Napoleon’s desire for power led him to greatness and then destroyed him. Napoleon made three disastrous mistakes.
The Continental System
-Mistake Number One
Isolating Great Britain
-November 1806, Napoleon strikes Britain with a blockade- forced closing of ports
-Continental System: economic plan to strengthen France, destroy British Economy.
-Smugglers and uncooperative allies make France’s Blockade fail.
-Britain responds with a blockade of it’s own, led by it’s stronger navy
Even Napoleon’s own relatives ignored the blockade to get British Manufactured goods.
-Napoleon begins to lose the loyalty of his alliances as economies begin to suffer from the blockade
-The British are seen as the victors of this “Economic War” and the seeds of discontent grow among Napoleon’s Allies
Higher Order Question: What did Napoleon lack that would have made the Continental System more effective?
Answer: 1. Stronger Navy than Great Britain 2. Allies that cooperated
The War of 1812
-British Navy searches and taxes neutral ships angering the United States
-U.S. Congress declares war on Great Britain!
-The War of 1812 was a minor inconvenience to The British
The Peninsular War
-1808: Mistake #2
Nationalism In Spain 1808
-Portugal is allowing British Manufactured Goods into Europe
-Napoleon Invades Portugal through Spain
-The Spanish Protest and in response Napoleon removes the king and places his brother on the throne.
-Spanish Peasants attack and harass French Soldiers: Guerrilla Warfare
-Great Britain lands troops to help the peasants against the French
-The British and Spanish fight the French for six years
-Napoleon loses 300,000 soldiers during his peninsular War: War on the Iberian Peninsula.
-Nationalist Rebels fight the French in other conquered territories
The Invasion of Russia
-1812: Mistake #2
France & Russia
-Alexander I of Russia, allied with Napoleon, was feeling the pressure the Continental System was putting on the economy.
-Russia needed to sell grain on the British Trade Routes
-Alexander was forced to start trading with Britain to save his economy.
Russia was an agricultural country and if they could not get their grain to market, their economy would fail.
-Napoleon wanted to draw the Russians into a decisive battle just over the border.
-The Russians draw the French deeper and deeper into Russia
-The French and Russians clash at Borodino
-As the French wait for the Russians to surrender, Moscow burns to the ground!
-The French Army retreats and is attacked by the Russians and Winter
-Alexander’s Army retreats, slashing and burning everything in Napoleon’s Path.
-Long Suply Lines
-No resources to “Live off The Land”
Alexander refused to get drawn into a battle that was uneven, so he retreated, drawing the French in deeper and deeper into Russia stretching the French supply lines.
-Napoleon’s Grande Army is reduced from 420,000 soldiers to 10,000.
-Napoleon’s Enemies now see him in a weak and vulnerable situation
Higher Order Question: What was the most important reason Napoleon’s Russian Campaign failed?
Answer: Czar Alexander used Napoleon’s arrogance to lead him into a trap that was inescapable
Napoleon’s Enemies Surround Him
Napoleon Suffers Defeat
Battle at Leipzig
-Napoleon raises another army
-October 1813, Napoleon met the Allied Army outside the city of Leipzig
-Napoleon’s Army was quickly defeated
-January 1814, Allied Armies were approaching Paris
-April 1814, Napoleon finally surrenders and is exiled to Island of Elbe
Napoleon wanted to fight on, but his generals refused. Frederick William III of Prussia and Czar Alexander I triumphantly marched through the streets of Paris with their soldiers.
Higher Order Question: Why do you think Napoleon’s Army was defeated so quickly?
Answer: Napoleon’s best and most experienced soldiers were killed in Spain and Russia
The Hundred Days
-Napoleon Returns To Power
Return To Monarchy
-Louis XVII, died in a Revolutionary Prison in 1795
-Louis XVI’s Brother acme the new King Louis XVIII
-The peasants suspected the new king would undo the Revolution’s Land Reforms
Louis XVII was abused and neglected in prison and died at the age of 10. The peasants feared the king was going to return the land back to the nobles.
-March 1st 1815, Napoleon escapes from Elbe and lands in France
-Joyous crowds welcomed him on his march to Paris
-Thousands of volunteers swelled the ranks of his army
-Within days, Napoleon was again Emperor of France
The Battle of Waterloo
-After learning of Napoleon’s return, the Allies mobilize their armies
-The British led by the Duke of Wellington, prepare for the French at the Belgian town of Waterloo
-Napoleon attacked on June 18th, 1815
-The French and British fought to a stalemate until the Prussian Army arrived and turned the tide.
Two days after the Prussians had arrived the French lines broke and they were driven from the field of battle.
2nd Exile: St. Helena
-Napoleon is exiled to the Island of St. Helena where he dies in 1821
The British shipped Napoleon, under guard, to the South Atlantic Island of St. Helena.
-Set up an efficient system of tax collecting
-Established a National Banking System
-Better financial control, strengthened central government
-Set up Lycées, or Public School System
-Napoleonic Code: Uniform National Laws
-The Code, in different forms, remained in the former occupied countries
Higher Order Question: In your opinion, what is the legacy of Napoleon
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Napoleon's Empire Collapses Presentation
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The Topics include: Napoleon, Nationalism, Continental System, Peninsular War, Guerrilla Warfare, Invasion of Russia, Alexander I, Scorched Earth, Grande Army, Leipzig, The Hundred Days, Island of Elbe, Waterloo, Duke of Wellington, St. Helena, Napoleonic Code, Lycées
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