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Parliament Limits The English Monarchy Presentation
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The Topics include: Absolute Monarchy, James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II, Petition of Right, Parliament, English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell, Puritans, Restoration, Glorious Revolution, Constitutional Monarchy
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Chapter 21, Section 5 "Parliament Limits The English Monarchy"
Parliament Limits The English Monarchy
PowerPoint and Keynote Presenters Notes
Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction
Chapter 21, Section 5
Presenters Notes, Higher Order Questions, Concepts
Parliament Limits The English Monarchy
Chapter 21 section 5
Conflict: To duffer in opinion or having opposing viewpoints usually based on self-interst
By the time Queen Elizabeth’s reign was over she had left a staggering debt for her successor to deal with.
-Queen Elizabeth I of England had many conflicts with Parliament over money.Parliament stood in the way of England’s monarchs becoming absolute rulers.
Monarchs Defy Parliament
James I King of Scotland
England and Scotland are not joined until 1707, but they shared a ruler.
-Elizabeth I dies with no heir
-James I becomes King of England and Scotland in 1603
-Struggles over money, church reform
-King James version of the Bible made
"Monarchy is the greatest thing on earth. Kings are rightly called gods since just like God they have power of life and death over all their subjects in all things. They are accountable to God only ... so it is a crime for anyone to argue about what a king can do”
King James I
Authority: The power or right to give orders, make decisions and enforce obedience
-Issues left unsettled from Elizabeth I’s Reign:
-Parliament: Was unwilling to raise taxes to provide money to the king.
-Puritans: wanted all Catholic Rituals purged from the Church
Charles I Fights Parliament
-1625: James Dies
-Charles I becomes king
-Also fights with Parliament over money
-1628: Parliament forces him to sign the Petition of Right
-Petition limits Charles’s power, but he ignores it
Petition of Right
-King would not imprison subjects without due cause
-King would not levy taxes without Parliaments Consent
-King would not house soldiers in private homes
-King would not impose martial law in peace time
Higher Order Question: What was the central theme of the petition of right
Answer: Set forth the idea that the law was higher than the king
A King Above The Law
-1629: Charles I dissolves Parliament
-Refuses to call it back in session
Imposes multiple fees and fines on the people
The English Civil War
An Offensive King
By calling Parliament back, this gave them the chance to oppose the king.
-Charles offended the Puritans by upholding the rituals of the Anglican Church
-Charles Offended the Presbyterian Scots, by trying to force them to use the Anglican Prayer Book
-The Scots built an army and threatened England!
-Charles needs money! Calls Parliament back
War Topples a King
-1641, Parliament passes laws to limit the kings power
-January 1642, Charles tries to have Parliament arrested!
-An angry mob forms outside the palace and Charles flees to the North
The English Civil War (1642-1649)
The supporters of Parliament were called Round Heads because they wore their hair short over their ears.
-Charles Supporters: Royalists; Cavaliers
-Puritans: Round Heads
-In the beginning, neither side could gain an advantage
The Tide Turns
-1644: The Puritans found a new general: Oliver Cromwell
-1645: Cromwell’s Army began defeating the Cavaliers
-1647: Cromwell’s Army holds the king captive
-1649: The king is brought to trial for treason and executed
Higher Order Question: Why do you think the Puritans had the king executed?
Answer: 1. To demonstrate that the king was not above the law, 2. To make sure the king could not return to power.
Cromwell favored religious tolerance for all Christians , except Catholics. He even allowed Jews to return, which had been expelled in 1290 AD
-In 1649, Cromwell abolishes monarchy, House of Lords
-Establishes a Republican form of government
-Becomes a Military Dictator
-Reform Society: outlawed theater, sporting events and dancing
Higher Order Question: What religion does the Puritan Society remind you of?
Rebellion in Ireland
-1100’s: England began colonizing Ireland
-1500’s: Henry VIII and his children brought it firmly under English Control
-Cromwell crushes the uprising
Seizes lands and houses and gives them to English Soldiers
Restoration and Revolution
-After Cromwell dies in 1658, government collapses
-The people were sick of military rule
-1659, Parliament asks son of Charles I to rule: Charles II
Charles II Reigns
Habeas Corpus: Latin meaning “to have the body”
-Restoration: return of the monarchy under Charles II
-Habeas Corpus: law requiring king to charge prisoner with crime
-No longer could prisoners be held just for opposing the king
-Could not hold people indefinitely without a trial
-Charles’ Catholic Brother James, becomes king in 1685
-James tries to push England to Catholicism
-England’s first political parties:
-Whigs: Opposed James
-Tories: Supported James
The Glorious Revolution
-William and Mary of Orange: Mary is the daughter of King James
-1688: Parliament invites William to over through James
-William and his army arrive in England
-James flees to France
-Protestants William and Mary become rulers of England
-Agree to a Constitutional Monarchy: Legal limits on power
Limits on the Monarch’s Power
-Bill of Rights (1689)
-No suspending of Parliament’s Laws
-No levying of taxes without a specific grant from Parliament
-No interfering with freedom of speech in Parliament
-No penalty for a citizen who petitions the king about grievances
Cabinet System Develops
-In 1700’s, Cabinet, a group of government ministers develops
-Ministers link the majority party in Parliament with the monarch
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