Pyramids On The Nile

PowerPoint and Keynote Presenter’s Notes

Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction

Chapter 2, Section 2

Presenters Notes, Higher Order Questions, Concepts

Slide 1

Pyramids of the Nile

-Chapter 2 Section 2

Slide 2

Civilizations

-Two civilizations developed at the same time

-Mesopotamia was a collection of city-states

-Egypt was a united kingdom and stayed that way

-Egypt’s unity created a climate of stability for 3,000 years

Slide 3

The Geography of Egypt

Slide 4

The Nile River

-Nile flows North for 4,100 miles.

-Longest river in the world

-Fed by mountains and lakes in Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia

-Fertile land was created by the river.

Slide 5

The Gift of the Nile

-The Nile would flood every year

-Deposit rich black soil

-Farmers used irrigation canals to water their crops

-The Egyptians would grow wheat and barley in the rich soil

-Thus, the Nile gave life to an otherwise dry land.

The rich black soil was called silt

Slide 6

“Egypt was the gift of the Nile”

-Herodotus 5th Century BC

Slide 7

Higher Order Question: What did Herodotus mean by “Egypt was the Gift of the Nile” ?

Answer: That the Nile created the land which the people of Egypt lived an and provided their way of life.

Slide 8

Environmental Challenges

Slide 9

Compare and Contrast

The Nile vs. Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

-The Nile River

-The Nile flooded every year like clockwork

-Life was more stable on the Nile

-The Tigris & Euphrates Rivers

-The Tigris and Euphrates was unpredictable

-Homes & Crops were destroyed

Slide 10

A Delicate Balance

-When the Nile was a few feet lower than Normal:

-Not enough water or soil was deposited- Led to drought and starvation

-When the Nile was a few feet higher than normal:

-Destroyed houses, granaries and wiped out crops

Slide 11

Natural Barriers

-Deserts to the East and West kept Egypt protected from invaders

-Without constant warfare, like in Mesopotamia, Egypt remained fairly safe

Slide 12

Higher Order Question: What would be a negative of the deserts/isolation?

Answer: Although the deserts protected the Egyptians from invasion, it also isolated them from trade/ideas

Slide 13

Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt

Slide 14

Two Different Regions

-Two regions develop North of the first Cataract

-Cataract is a rocky region where boats cannot pass

-Upper Egypt (South)

-Higher Elevation

-Lower Egypt (North)

-Lower Elevation, Delta of the Nile

Lower Egypt is about 100 miles from the Mediterranean Sea to the beginning of Upper Egypt.

Traveling the Nile: Boats ride the current traveling North and use sails to catch the wind traveling South

Slide 15

Egypt Unites Into A Kingdom

Slide 16

Concept: Government Systems

Answer: The institutions or systems which make up the government of a nation

Slide 17

Government Systems of Egypt

-5000 BC or Earlier

-Farming Villages

-Own rituals, gods and chieftains

-3200 BC

-Kingdom of Lower Egypt & Kingdom of Upper Egypt

3000 BC Egypt united into one kingdom

The United Crown of Egypt combined the White Crown of Upper Egypt and Red Crown of Lower Egypt. 

Slide 18

Narmer

-Combined the Upper and Lower crowns into one

-Moved the capital to Memphis (Where upper and Lower Egypt meet)

-This was the first Egyptian Dynasty

There is evidence to a king named scorpion, but historians believe that Narmer was the one who united Egypt.

Slide 19

Egyptian Timeline

-3200 BC (2) Kingdoms

-3000 BC Unification

-2660 BC Old Kingdom

-1550 BC New Kingdom

Slide 20

Concept: Culture

Answer: The traditions, customs or way of life of a community

Slide 21

Pharaohs Rule As gods

-Compare & Contrast Egypt vs. Mesopotamia

-Mesopotamia: gods->kings represented gods

-Pharaoh is god

-Theocracy: king is both political and religious leader

Slide 22

Builders of the Pyramids

-Egyptians believed that rulers governed in the afterlife

-Ka: eternal life force

-Had same needs as living things

-Tombs were more important than palaces

Slide 23

Interesting Facts About Pyramids

-Great engineering achievement

-Egyptians had a good supply of limestone & granite

-Blocks weighed from 2.5 to 15 tons

-2 million blocks used covering more than 13 acres 481 feet high

Slide 24

Egyptian Culture

With nature being  kinder to Egyptians than to Mesopotamia, They faced life with confidence

Slide 25

Religion

-Polytheistic

-Belief in many gods

-Re: Sun god

-Osiris: god of the life, death and afterlife

-Isis: ideal mother and wife

-Worshiped over 2,000 gods and goddesses

Slide 26

The Afterlife

-Egyptians believed Anubis would weigh a persons heart against a feather

-People would be judged on sins vs good deeds

-The heart could be no heavier than a feather

-The heart was heavy with sin- Devourer of souls ate it.

Slide 27

The Other World

-People believed that if they passed the balance test, they would pass to “The Other World”

-Beautiful Place

-Burials and preserving the body for the afterlife were important

-Mummification

     -embalming and drying the corps to prevent decay

-Items were placed in the tomb for use in the afterlife.

Egyptians have a collection of writings about how to prepared guide the soul  in the afterlife called “The Book of the Dead”

Slide 28

Higher Order Question: How did the Egyptian view of the afterlife compare with Sumaerians

Answer: Egyptians believed that if they led a good life they would pass to a beautiful place and Sumerians had a grim view of death (Eating Clay and Sand)

Slide 29

Life In Egyptian Society

Slide 30

Egyptian Society

-King & Queen, Royal Family

-Upper Class

-Wealthy Landowner, Govt. Officials, Priests, Army Commanders

-Middle Class

-Merchants, Artisans

-Lower Class

-Farmers & Laborers

-People were not bound to their social classes- they could move up

-Women could own property and had many of the rights men did.

Reading and writing were valuable skills in those times.

Slide 31

Egyptian Writing

-Development of writing- key to advancing civilization

-Pictograms: Earliest form of writing

-Hieroglyphics: more flexible form

-Picture stood for an idea

-Papyrus: Early form of paper

Slide 32

Egyptian Science and Technology

-Calendar

-Kept track of when Nile would flood

-Time to plant

-Solar Year: 365 days divided into 12 months and 30 days/month

-Priests saw that the start Sirius appeared above the Eastern horizon just before the floods.  

-The Calendar was so accurate it was within 6 hours of the real solar year.

Slide 33

Egyptian Science and Technology

-Number System

-Add, Subtract

-Early form of geography to set land boundaries

-Measuring for buildings

-Medicine

-Heart Rate

-Set Broken Bones

-Minor Surgery

Slide 34

Invaders Control Egypt

Slide 35

Kingdoms of Egypt

-The Power of the Pharaohs declined by 2180 BC

-Pharaohs regained power and restored law & order by the Middle Kingdom

-Invaders from Palestine conquered Egypt (Hyksos)

-A new period of power and glory

-Old Kingdom (2660-2180BC), Middle Kingdom (2040-1640BC), Hyksos Rule (1630-1523BC), New Kingdom (1550-1077BC)

Hyksos means “rulers of foreign lands” 

-During Middle Kingdom Improved trade and Transportation, dug a canal from the Nile to The Red Sea.

Slide 36

The End

These materials were prepared by Harms LLC and have neither been developed, reviewed, nor endorsed by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, publisher of the original WORLD HISTORY: Patterns of Interaction work on which this material is based.

Pyramids On The Nile Presentation

Pyramids On The Nile PowerPoint

      Mr. Harms has designed a number of PowerPoint and Keynote presentations to help students understand history. Designed by a teacher for teachers, this PowerPoint focuses on "Early Egyptian History". This presentation is designed to give students an overview of the development of Egypt. Students will be shown maps, animations and descriptions of some of the major events in the development of Ancient Egypt.
      The presentation is totally customizable, allowing you to add your own pictures, graphics and animations to take what we've done even farther.  It comes with presentation notes to help you discuss the subject and engage them in the development of humans. At less than $4.00, it will save you time and lay the foundation for presentations that help students understand and remember.  
The Topics include: Nile River, Egypt, Upper & Lower Egypt, Old Kingdom, New Kingdom, Hyksos, Narmer, Dynasty, Pharaohs, Re, Osiris, Isis, afterlife, The Other World, Mummification, Hieroglyphics. 
 
Number of Slides: 36  $3.60

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Source: 
McDougal Littel's World History: Patterns of Interaction
The Beginnings of Civilization
Early River Valley Civilizations 3500 BC To 450 BC
Chapter 2, Section 2 "Pyramids On The Nile"

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