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Revolution Brings Reform and Terror

PowerPoint and Keynote Presenters Notes

Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction

Chapter 23, Section 2

Presenters Notes, Higher Order Questions, Concepts

Slide 1

Revolution Brings Reform & Terror

Chapter 23 Section 2

Slide 2

Concept: Revolution

Definition: The forcible overthrow of a government, or social order in favor of a new system

Slide 3

Causes of the Revolution

    -Enlightenment Ideas: Ex. American Revolution, lack of representation

    -Economic Troubles: Crop failures, inflation, massive debt

    -Weak Leader: Extravagant Spending, Lack of empathy for the people

Slide 4

Governments of France

    -(987-1791) Absolute Monarchy

Slide 5

Why is this important?

    -Some governments that lack the support of the majority of their people still use fear to control their citizens

        -Examples?    

Slide 6

Higher Order Question: Why do people obey governments?

Answer: 1. Respect, 2. Self Interest, 3. Fear

Higher Order Question: Which motives produce the most stability

Answer: Respect/Self-Interest

Slide 7

The Assembly Reforms France

Slide 8

Death of The Old Regime

    -August 4th 1789, Noblemen made grand speeches about their love of Liberty and Equality

        -More likely fear rather than idealism motivated them.

    -The Assembly voted away the privileges of the 1st and 2nd Estates making everyone equal

Slide 9

Concept: Change

Definition: To make or become different

Slide 10

The Rights of Man & of the Citizen

Olympe de Gouges wrote about the Rights of Women and was dismissed and later executed by the Revolution.

    -National Assembly adopts “Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the citizen”

    -Revolutionary leaders use the slogan: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”

    Main Points:

        -Inspired by: The Declaration of Independence

        -Men are born free and remain free and equal in rights

        -Rights include: Liberty, Property, Security and Resistance To Oppression    

        -Guaranteed Equal Justice, Freedom of Speech & religion

Slide 11

A State Controlled Church

    -The Church and State were separate

    -National Assembly seizes church lands, turns clergy into public officials

        -This action alarms many peasants who are Devout Catholics

Slide 12

Gains and Losses

    -The Church

        -Lost it’s political independence

        -Lost Church Lands

    -The State

        -Controlled the Church

        -Sold Church lands to pay France’s Huge Debt

Slide 13

Higher Order Question: Would a U.S. Legislature treat religion the way the National Assembly did?

Answer: No, that would violate the separation of Church and State

Slide 14

Louis Tries To Escape

    -June 1791, Louis, worried about his future, attempts to escape France

        -Revolutionaries catch the royal family near the Netherland’s Border

Slide 15

Divisions Develop

    -By 1791, France had made significant changes in Government and Society

Slide 16

Governments of France

    -(987-1791) Absolute Monarchy

    -(September 1791) Constitutional Monarchy

Slide 17

A Limited Monarchy

    -Old Regime (Absolute Monarchy)

        -King: Make Laws, Enforces laws

        -1st Estate: Clergy (Pays 2% Income Tax)

        -2nd Estate: Nobles (No taxes)

        -3rd Estate: Merchants/Peasants (50% Income Tax)

    -New Regime (Constitutional Monarchy)

        -National Assembly: Makes Laws

        -King: Enforces Laws

    -InSeptember 1791, Assembly finishes new constitution

    -Legislative Assembly: New assembly created to pass laws

Slide 18

Higher Order Question: What can you infer about the power of Louis from his signing of the 1791 Constitution?

Answer: That he was a weak ruler

Slide 19

Factions Split France

    -Factions push for changes join the government that will benefit them- Self Interest

Slide 20

The Political Spectrum

    -Radicals (Extreme Change), Moderates, Conservatives (Right)

    -Liberals (Left) Like Change, Change/Same, Reactionaries (Want things to go back to the way they used to be

    -Extreme Groups

Slide 21

Conservatives: Emigres: Nobles who flee the country and want the Old Regime back in power

Moderates

Liberals: Sans Culottes: Lower Class that wants more change from the Revolution “Those without knee breaches”

-Major Problems:

    -National Debt

    -Food Shortages

The Sans Culottes were not a part of the assembly, but they found a way to exert their power on the streets of Paris.

Slide 22

Higher Order Question: Why do you think the Emigres and Sans Culottes advocated for different governments?

Answer: The governments they advocated for benefited them the most (Self-Interest)

Slide 23

War & Execution

    -European Countries watched what was going on in France, fearing it might spread to their countries

Slide 24

War: A conflict that results in military action between groups or nations

Slide 25

Problems With Other Countries

    -Austria and Prussia pressure France to restore Louis to the throne.

        -European Monarchs fear the Revolution will spread across Europe

        -1792, France Declares War!

Slide 26

France At War

    -Prussian Forces soon threaten Paris, Summer 1792

    -Parisian Mob jails royal family, kills guards

    -Mob breaks into prisons, killing over 1,000 people including monarchy supporters (Royalists)

The Prussian Commander threatened that if the royal family was harmed in any way he would destroy Paris.  The Mob then broke into the jails, fearing royalists would try to talke over the city and murdered thousands of Royalists.

Slide 27

Higher Order Question: What caused the Prussians to invade France?

Answer: The fear of the Revolution spreading to other European Countries

Slide 28

-Pressured by the mob, Legislative Assembly set aside the Constitution of 1791.

    -Deposed the King

    -Dissolved the Assembly

-National Convention takes office in September, forming French Republic

    -Despite their importance to the Revolution, women were not allowed to vote.

Slide 29

Governments of France

    -(987-1791) Absolute Monarchy

    -(September 1791) Constitutional Monarchy

    -(September 1792) French Republic

Slide 30

Jacobins Take Control

    -Jacobins: radical political organization behind 1792 governmental changes

        -Jean Paul Marat: editor of a French Newspaper: Called for the death of all Royalists

        -Georges Danton: Passionate speaker known for his support of the poor

Marat’s newspaper was called L’Ami du peuple “Friend of the people”

Slide 31

Execution

    -After a close vote, Louis XVI is found guilty of treason and beheaded

        -Guillotine: machine designed during the Revolution to behead people humanely.

Slide 32

The War Continues

    -French Army wins a great victory over the Prussians and Austrians at Valmy

    -In 1793, Britain, Spain, Netherlands join forces against France

    -National Convention orders draft of 300,000 to reinforce the army

The French enjoyed a few successes after Valmy, but when the Spanish, Dutch and English joined Austria and Prussia they suffered a series of defeats at the hands of the Allies.

-The French drafted all men and some women ages 18-40 to reach 800,000 new soldiers by 1794.

Slide 33

The Terror Grips France

    -The Jacobins make a lot of enemies inside France as well as outside

Slide 34

Divided Country

    -Not all people in France support all the changes of the Revolution

        -Jacobin

            -Peasants horrified by the execution of the king

            -Priests who resented government control of religion

            -Political rivals

Slide 35

Robespierre Assumes Control

    -1793, Maximilien Robespierre- Jacobin leader, rules France for a year

        -Becomes leader of the Committee For Public Safety, a dictator

        -Creates Republic of Virtue, wants to wipe out France’s Past

Slide 36

Governments of France

    -(987-1791) Absolute Monarchy

    -(September 1791) Constitutional Monarchy

    -(September 1792) French Republic

    -(1793) Dictatorship: Robespierre

Slide 37

Reign of Terror

    -Rebespierre’s Rule includes killing many opponents

        -Thousands die during the terror, including former allies and queen Marie Antoinette

            -85% of those that die during the terror are middle or lower class

    -Religion Suspended

    -Close to 40,000 people executed!

During this time the government eliminated religion as being old fashioned in the age of reason. Churches were closed all over France.

Georges Danton wa also executed.

Slide 38

End of The Terror

    -July 28th 1794: The Revolution turns on Robespierre: He is arrested and executed.

Slide 39

Another Change In Government

    -Terror results in public opinion shifting away from the radicals

    -Moderate Leaders write a new constitution

        -Two house legislature and Five Man Directory restore order

        -New government make Napoleon Bonaparte commander of armies

Members of the 5 Man Directory made themselves rich through there positions.  The government was a one of self interest and not virtue.

Slide 40

Higher Order Question: What conclusion can you draw from learning about this period in French History?

Answer: That a country without clear leadership can quickly be hurled into chaos.

Slide 41

Governments of France

    -(987-1791) Absolute Monarchy

    -(September 1791) Constitutional Monarchy

    -(September 1792) French Republic

    -(1793) Dictatorship: Robespierre

    -(July 1794) Five Man Directory/ Two House Legislature

Slide 42

The End

These materials were prepared by Harms LLC and have neither been developed, reviewed, nor endorsed by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, publisher of the original WORLD HISTORY: Patterns of Interaction work on which this material is based.

      Mr. Harms has designed a number of PowerPoint and Keynote presentations to help students understand history. Designed by a teacher for teachers, this PowerPoint focuses on "Revolution Brings Reform and Terror". This presentation is designed to give students an overview of The French Revolution. Students will be shown maps, animations and descriptions detailing these events.

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The Topics include: French Revolution, The Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Louis 16th, Limited Monarchy, Old Regime, Political Spectrum, Sans Culottes, Emigres, French Republic, Jacobins, Robespierre

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Source: 
McDougal Littel's World History: Patterns of Interaction
Absolutism To Revolution
The French Revolution and Napoleon
Chapter 23, Section 2 "Revolution Brings Reform and Terror"

Revolution Brings Reform and Terror PowerPoint

Revolution Brings Reform and Terror Presentation