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Revolutions In Russia Presentation
Mr. Harms has designed a number of PowerPoint and Keynote presentations to help students understand history. Designed by a teacher for teachers, this PowerPoint focuses on "Revolutions In Russia". This presentation is designed to give students an overview of the path to Communism taken by Lenin and other Bolshevik Leaders. Students will be shown maps, animations and descriptions of some of the major events leading to the Russian Revolution.
The presentation is totally customizable, allowing you to add your own pictures, graphics and animations to take what we've done even farther. It comes with presentation notes to help you discuss the subject and engage them in the events of Europe. At less than $6.00, it will save you time and lay the foundation for presentations that help students understand and remember.
The Topics include: Russian Revolution, Czar Alexander II, Alexander III, Nicholas II, Industrialization, Marxism, Vladimir Lenin, Capitalism, Socialism, Communism, Russo-Japanese War, Revolution of 1905, Bloody Sunday, WWI, Bolshevik Revolution, Provisional Govt, Civil War, New Economic Policy, Leon Trotsky, Joseph Stalin, Soviet Union.
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McDougal Littel's World History: Patterns of Interaction
The World At War
Revolution and Nationalism
Chapter 30, Section 1 "Revolutions In Russia"
Revolutions In Russia
PowerPoint and Keynote Presenters Notes
Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction
Chapter 30, Section 1
Presenters Notes, Higher Order Questions, Concepts
Revolutions In Russia
-Chapter 30 Section 1
A Revolution 100 Years In The Making
-1800’s: Cruel and Oppressive Rule of the Czars
-1825: Army Officer Revolt
-1888: Assassination of Alexander II
-Long term social unrest in Russia explodes in revolution and ushers in the first Communist Government
Czars Resist Change
Czar Alexander II
-Alexander was known as “The Liberator”
-He freed the serfs in 1861
-He was a reformer, but was assassinated by radical reformers who thought he was moving too slow
End To Reform
-In 1881, Alexander III becomes Czar, ends reforms
-Institutes autocratic rule, suppressing all opposition and dissent
Alexander reacted to the assassination of his father by cracking down on the people. He believed in autocracy, much like his grandfather Nicholas I.
People Labeled As Dangerous
-Questioned the absolute authority of the Czar
-Worshiped outside the Russian Orthodox Church
-Spoke a language other than Russian
Czars Continue Autocratic Rule
Explanation: A series of actions or behaviors that are consistent
Wiping Out The Revolutionaries
-Government censors written criticism; secret police monitor schools
-Non-Russians living in Russia are treated harshly
-Jews become targets of government Pogroms (Mob violence)
-In 1894, Nicholas II becomes Czar, continues Autocratic Ways
Teachers had to submit reports on all their students.
Higher Order Question: What kind of behaviors could get you arrested in an Authoritarian state.
Answer: 1. Questioning the leader, 2. Not following customs, 3. Practicing an illegal religion, 4. Voicing an unpopular opinion
-Number of factories doubles between 1863 and 1900; Russia still lags behind
-In late 1800’s, new plan boosts steel production
-A lot of capital was needed to build Heavy Industry
-Financed it through:
-Taxes on the Russian People
The Trans-Siberian Railway
-The Railway linked the Pacific Ports in the East with European Russia in the West. (Completed in 1916)
The Revolutionary Movement Grows
Rapid Industrialization Creates Problems
-Russian People Discontent
-Grueling Work Conditions
-Miserably Low Wages
-With no political Power People were forced to strike to make changes
-Growing popularity of the Marxist idea that the Proletariat (workers) will rule
-Overthrow of the Czar/Social System
Revolutionary Group Splits
-1903, Marxist Revolutionaries
-Mensheviks: Moderate, broad based appeal
-Bolsheviks: Radical, small dedicated group
-Lenin was forced to flee Czarist Russia to the West where he kept in contact with revolutionaries.
-The owner risks their own capital
-Two aspects: Private Property, ownership of land
-What is Capital?: Money, Land Factory
-Free Market limited government control
In Capitalism, workers wages are determined by supply and demand of their skills.
-Redistribution of Wealth
-Two Aspects: Private Ownership, More Government Control
-Marxist: Utopian (Classless/Stateless
-Leninist: One Party System (Communist)
-Everyone works for the good of the state
-Huge state Government
-Classes by party rank
Crisis At Home and Abroad
-Crisis Shows Czar’s weakness
-The Russo-Japanese War
-Revolution of 1905
-World War I
Conflict: Korea and Manchuria
-1800’s, Russia and Japan competed for control of Manchuria
-Signed treaties, but Russia broke them
-Japan Retaliates inflicting heavy Russian losses
-Leads to a revolt
Korea and Manchuria had valuable natural resources like Coal and Iron Ore.
The Revolution of 1905
-In 1905, 200,000 workers march on the Czars Winter Palace to demand reforms:
-Better Working Conditions
-More Personal Freedom
-Elected National Legislature
-Army fires into crowd: hundreds killed, a thousand wounded
-Massacre leads to widespread unrest; Nicholas forced to make reforms
Higher Order Question: What do you think the Czar feared would happen if he gave in to the demands of his citizens?
Answer: Example: Feared that he would look weak
World War I: The Final Blow
Russia: Unprepared For War
-Weak generals and poorly equipped troops: No match for the German Army.
-Thousands of Russians slaughtered
-Over 4 million killed or captured in the first year
-Nicholas moves to the front to personally conduct the war
-Czarina falls under influence of Rasputin, - mysterious “holy man”
-Nobles fear Rasputin’s influence: 1916 murder him
Rasputin was able to relieve the pain of the Czar’s son, Alexis who suffered from hemophilia. The Czarina gave him great power, in which he named his friends to high government offices.
-By March of 1917, Russia was on the verge of collapse:
-Soldiers were mutinying and deserting
-Food and fuel were in short supply on the home front
-Inflation was destroying peoples buying power
The March Revolution
Explanation: The Forcible overthrow of a government or social order in favor of a different system
-In March 1917, strikes expand; soldiers refuse to fire on workers
The Czar Steps Down
-March Revolution: Protest becomes uprising; Nicholas abdicates the throne
-Duma establishes Provisional Government, or temporary
-Soviets: committees of Socialist Revolutionaries: control many cities
New Leader/Same Problems
-A Charismatic New Leader: Alexander Kerensky keeps Russia in the war
-Russia’s problems got worse
-Soviets form: local councils of workers, peasants and soldiers
-more powerful than the Provisional Government
The Bolshevik Revolution
Lenin Returns To Russia
-In April 1917, Germans aid Lenin in returning from exile to Russia
-Lenin and his followers take over the Petrograd Soviet
-Soviets all over Russia take control of the cities
The Provisional Government Topples
-In November 1917, workers take control of the government in Moscow
The Bolsheviks In Power
-Bolsheviks sign treaty with Germany; Russia out of WWI (Peace)
-Lenin gives (land) to Peasants, puts workers in control of factories.
-Peasants with land will be motivated to produce more= More Food (bread)
The Central Powers agreed to an armistice on the Eastern Front. With Russia embroiled in its own civil war- The Central Powers could force harsh terms on them. The Bolsheviks sent Leon Trotsky to negotiate with the Germans in the Polish town of Brest Litovsk. Trotsky tried to stall, hoping the Germans and other European powers would see their armies desert and plunge Europe into a class war. When this obviously failed and the Germans resumed their attack capturing more territory in 5 days than they had in the last 5 years- Trotsky had no choice but to agree to all the Germans demands. Settled and Signed March 3rd 1918
A Harsh Peace
-Russians Give up territory:
-Poland, Ukraine, Baltic States, Finland, Transcaucasia
-1/3 Agricultural Land
Many Russians were angered by the peace settlement and the murder of the royal family.
Civil War Rages in Russia
-Red Army: Socialists
-White Army: Czars Supporters, Democratic Supporters, Socialists
-Civil War between Bolsheviks Red Army and the loosely allied White Army
-Red Army, Led by Leon Trotsky wins 3 year war that leaves 14 million dead
Comparing World Revolutions
-American Revolution: Built on English Political Ideas using existing structures
-French Revolution: Attempt to remake society by destroying existing political system
-Russian Revolution: Attempt to remake society by destroying existing political system
Lenin Restores Order
-The Russian Economy was destroyed by WWI and the Revolution
New Economic Policy
-In March 1921, Lenin launches NEP; small scale version of Capitalism
-NEP and peace restore economy shattered by war, revolution
-By 1928, Russia’s farms and factories are productive again to Pre-WWI Levels
Higher order Question: Why do you think an ardent Communist like Lenin resorted to using Capitalism to get the farms and factories working again?
Answer: By allowing the peasants and factory owners to make profits, it motivated them to produce more.
-Lenin creates self-governing republics under a national government
-In 1922, country renamed: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; U.S.S.R.
-Communist Party: New name taken by Bolsheviks from writings of Marx
-Hammer: Industrial Workers
-Combined: Worker peasant alliance
The Republics of the Soviet Union
Higher Order Question: What is the difference between the government advocated by Marx and the one created by Lenin?
Answer: Marx wanted a dictatorship of the workers and peasants, Lenin’s was a dictatorship of the Communist Party
Stalin Becomes Dictator
A New Leader
-Trotsky and Stalin compete to replace Lenin after several strokes- he dies
-Joseph Stalin: Cold, hard Communist Party General Secretary in 1922
-Stalin gains power from 1922-1927
-Lenin dies in 1924
-Stalin gains complete control in 1928; Trotsky forced into exile to Mexico where Stalin’s spies murder him.
These materials were prepared by Harms LLC and have neither been developed, reviewed, nor endorsed by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, publisher of the original WORLD HISTORY: Patterns of Interaction work on which this material is based.