Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction
Chapter 13, Section 3
Presenters Notes, Higher Order Questions, Concepts
The Age of Chivalry
(A New Code of Conduct Arises in a World of Violence)
-Glorifying War and Love
-During the Middle Ages, nobles were in a constant state of warfare.
-Kept Europe fragmented for centuries
-The Code of Chivalry for knights glorifies combat and romantic love.
Knights (Warriors on Horseback)
The Technology of Warfare Changes
Charles Martel observed that the Muslim Cavalry had turned the tide of many battles using the speed of their horses. Martel created armored knights and horsemen. “Medieval Tanks” Leather Stirrups and saddles had been developed in Asia around 200 BC
-In 700’s Mounted knights become most important part of an army.
-Leather saddle and stirrups enable knights to handle navy weapons
-Mounted knights become the most devastating weapon on the battle field.
Higher Order Question: How did the relationship of Lords and Knights exemplify the system of Feudalism?
Answer: Knights were vassals who received land from lords in exchange military service
Warriors Role In Feudal Society
Lord’s demanded about 40 days of battle a year from knights. Land was the most abundant resource for Lord’s to pay their knights.
-By the 1000’s, Western Europe is a battle ground of warring nobles
-Feudal lords raise private armies f knights
-Knights rewarded with land; provides income for needed weapons.
-Knights other activities help train them for combat: hunting, wrestling
Knighthood and the Code of Chivalry (A Complex Set of Ideals)
Most knights were far from this ideal and they treated the lower classes brutally.
-By 1100’s, knights obey code of chivalry- a set of ideals on how to act.
-Knights are to:
-Protect weak and poor
-Serve feudal lord
-Serve their chosen lady “Chivalry” Dicksee 1885
Concept: Values & Beliefs: Shared beliefs about what is good and bad, right-wrong, specific statements that people hold to be true.
On the following slide is one of many codes of Chivalry. It was written in 1891 by a Frenchmen named Leon Gautier.
After you have looked over this code, create a modern day code based on your own beliefs. Be prepared to discuss your code and hand it in.
The Code of Chivalry
-Thou shalt believe all that the church teaches and shall obey all of the commandments.
-Thou shalt defend the church
-Thou shalt respect all weaknesses and shall constitute thyself the defender of them.
-Thou shalt not recoil before thine enemy.
-Thou shalt make war against the infidel without cessation or mercy.
-Thou shalt perform scrupulously thy Feudal duties, if they be not contrary to the Laws of God.
-Thou shalt never lie, and shalt remain faithful to thy pledged word.
-Thou shalt be generous and give largess to everyone.
-Thou shalt be everywhere and always tyne champion of the right and the good against injustice and evil.
A Knights Training
Knights fought in local wars to gain experience as well as compete in local tournaments.
-Page (7 years)-Squire (14 years)-Knight (21 years)
-Sons of nobles began to train for knighthood at age 7
-Sent to the castle of another lord as a Page.
-Page: Waited on the hosts and practiced fighting
-Squire: Servant To a knight
-Knight: Traveled and fought
Higher Order Question: Why was it important for boys to leave home to be trained as knights. Answer: To learn to serve others and experience new situations
Brutal Reality of Warfare
-Castles are huge fortresses (designed for defense) where lords live
-Lord, Lady, family, servants and knights
-Attacking armies use wide range of strategies and weapons:
-Boiling oil, arrows, molten lead
-Castles could dominate an entire region.
The Literature of Chivalry
-The focus of literature was to stay away from reality and glorify war and romance.
A few brave knights are up against an overwhelming Muslim force to which there is no chance for victory. Turpin is the Archbishop that speaks to Roland’s men. In todays terms we would call this suicide. Turpin’s sermon represents the Medieval ideals of: Chivalry, Courage and faith.
-Epic poems recount a hero’s deeds and adventure
-“The Song of Roland” is about Charlemagne’s knights fighting Muslims
-From “The Song of Roland”
-And now there comes the Archbishop. He spurs his horse, goes up into a mountain, summons the French; and he preached them a sermon:
“Barons, My Lords, Charlemagne has left us in this place. We know our duty: to die like good men for our king. Fight to defend our Christian Faith.”
Love Poems & Songs
-Knights duties to ladies are as important as those to their lord
-Troubadours- traveling poet-musicians
-Write and sing short verses
-Most celebrated woman of the age is Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204)
-Eleanor’s son, Richard the Lionhearted, also wrote songs and poems.
Women’s Role In Feudal Society
-Women were powerless and thought of as inferior to men.
Status of Women
-Can inherit land, defend castle, send knights to war on lord’s request
-Usually confined to activities of the home or convent.
-Most labor in home and field, bear children, provide for family.
-Poor, powerless, do household tasks at a young age.
These materials were prepared by Harms LLC and have neither been developed, reviewed, nor endorsed by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, publisher of the original WORLD HISTORY: Patterns of Interaction work on which this material is based.
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The Age of Chivalry Presentation
Mr. Harms has designed a number of PowerPoint and Keynote presentations to help students understand history. Designed by a teacher for teachers, this PowerPoint focuses on "The Age of Chivalry". This presentation is designed to give students an overview of how Chivalry developed in Europe. Students will be shown maps, animations and descriptions of some of the facets of Chivalry
The presentation is totally customizable, allowing you to add your own pictures, graphics and animations to take what we've done even farther. It comes with presentation notes to help you discuss the subject and engage students in the events of Chivalry. At less than $3.00, it will save you time and lay the foundation for presentations that help students understand and remember.
The Topics include: glorifying war and love, technology of warfare, warriors role in feudal society., knighthood, Code of Chivalry, Knights training, epic poetry.
Number of Slides: 21 $2.10
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Chapter 13, Section 3 "The Age of Chivalry"