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The Congress of Vienna

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Nationalism: Unification of Italy and Germany
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Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction
Chapter 24, Section 3

Presenters Notes, Higher Order Questions, Concepts

Slide 1

Nationalism: Italy and Germany

Chapter 24 Section 3

Slide 2

Nationalism: A sentiment or sense of belonging and pride for your country, nationality or culture

Slide 3

Nationalism contributes to the formation of two new nations and a new political order in Europe

Slide 4

Nationalism: A Force For Unity or Disunity

Slide 5

Effects of Nationalism

    -Nationalism can be used to unite countries or tear them apart

        -Three Different types of Nationalist Movements



            -State Building

Slide 6


    -Merging Culturally Similar Land

        -Vast majority of the people in these states are Ethnic Germans

Slide 7


    -Splitting Off Culturally Distinct Groups

        -Example: Yugoslavia 1989-1992

Slide 8

State Building

    -Culturally distinct groups form a new state by accepting a single culture.

Slide 9

Higher Order Question: How is State Building still taking place in the United States

Answer: New immigrants adapting to U.S. Culture

Slide 10

Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires

Nationalism weakens and eventually threatens to bring down these aged empires

Slide 11

Culture: The Traditions, Customs or Way of Life for a community of people

Slide 12

Multi-Cultural Empires

    -Austrian Empire

        -Hapsburg Family

    -Russian Empire


    -Ottoman Empire

        -Ottoman Turks

Slide 13

The Break-Up of the Austrian Empire

-Austria and Hungary Split Into Two Governments

Slide 14

The Ethnic Make-Up of the Austrian Empire

    -The Austrian Empire includes people from many ethnic groups:

        -Slovenes, Hungarians, Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Croates, Poles, Serbs and Italians

Slide 15

Austro-Prussian War

    -1866, Prussia defeats Austria

        -Prussia gains control of the North German Confederation

    -The Hungarians put pressure on Francis Joseph to split the country into two separate states.

    -Nationalists disputes will weaken the 

Slide 16


    -Francis Joseph: Austrian Empire

        -Francis Joseph: Austrian Emperor, Hungarian Emperor

Slide 17

Higher Order Question: What did Emperor Francis Joseph hope to accomplish by splitting the empire in two?

Answer: Satisify nationalistic feelings in Hungary and still maintain control of both states

Slide 18

The Russian Empire Crumbles

    -Large minorities react to forced Russification

Slide 19

The Russian Empire Crumbles

    -After 370 years, Russian Czars (Romanovs) begin losing control over their empire

    -Russification: forcing other peoples to adopt to Russian Culture

        -Policy further disunites Russia, strengthens Ethnic Nationalism

    -Ethnic Groups in The Russian Empire: Russians, Ukrainians, Belorussians, Uzbeks, Georgians, Chechens, Poles, Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Finns, Jews, Romanians, Armenians, Turks…….

Slide 20

Higher Order Question: How was Russification supposed to strengthen the Russian Empire?

Answer: If people shared the same culture they would feel apart of the Empire

Slide 21

The Ottoman Empire Weakens

    -Internal Tensions among ethnic groups weakens the empire

    -Rulers grant citizenship to all groups, outraging Turk Citizens

        -Turks, Greeks, Arabs, Kurds, Albanians, Slavs, Armenians

Slide 22

Higher Order Question: The Turks in the Ottoman Empire would be considered on what side of the Political Spectrum?

Answer: Conservative: They wanted only Turks to have citizenship in the empire.

Slide 23

Cavour Unites Italy

-Discontent with foreign rule leads to Nationalism in Italian Regions

    -Camillo di Cavour: Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1852

Slide 24

The Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia

    -Piedmont-Sardinia largest and most powerful Italian State

        -Developed a Liberal Constitution in 1848, that appealed to Middle Class

    -King Victor Emmanuel II named Camillo di Cavour as Prime Minister

Slide 25

-Cavour worked non-stop to increase Piedmont-Sardinia’s Power using:

    -Skillful Diplomacy

    -Well Chosen Alliances

        -Wanted to gain control of Northern Italy

Slide 26

The Austrian Road Block

-Austria dominated the states of Northern Italy and therefor was the biggest road block to unification

    -Cavour gained France’s support to drive Austria out of Northern Italy

    -The combined force defeated Austria and secured Northern Italy for Sardinia

        -Venetia was the only land they could not secure

Slide 27

Garibaldi Brings Unity

    -As Cavour was uniting Northern Italy, he was secretly aiding Nationalist Rebels in Southern Italy led by Giuseppe Garibaldi

Garibaldi and his followers always wore Red Shirts and that’s why the became know as the “Red Shirts”.

Slide 28


    -Giuseppe Garibaldi Leads Nationalists who conquer Southern Italy

    -Cavour convinces Garibaldi to unite Southern Italy and Sardinia

        -Garibaldi steps aside, allowing The King of Sardinia to rule

        -Control of Venetia, Papal States finally unites Italy, 1870

Slide 29

Bismarck Unites Germany

    -After many years of Austrian Domination, Prussia rises to lead German Unification

In 1815, 39 German States formed a loose alliance called the German Confederation, which was dominated by Austria.

Slide 30

Prussia’s Advantages

    -Prussia has advantages that help it unify Germany

        -Mainly German Population

        -Powerful Army

        -Creation of a Liberal Constitution

        -Powerful Prime Minister

Slide 31

Higher Order Question: What do you think Liberal Constitution means?

Answer: Liberal means it was a change from the old way of doing things: More power to the legislature (people) instead of to the king.

Slide 32

Bismarck Takes Control

-Prussian Junker, Strategist and Master of Real Politik

Slide 33

A New King of Prussia

-1861, Wilhelm I succeeds Frederick William as King

    -Parliament refused him money to double the strength of the army

        -A challenge to his authority

    -Junkers: Conservative, wealthy , landowners- support Wilhelm I

Slide 34

-Junkers Realpolitik Master: Otto Von Bismarck, becomes Prime Minister

-Realpolitik: Power Politics without room for idealism

    -U.S. idealistically opposed to Iran and North Korea

    -Can engage those countries: Reality Politics

Realpolitik: “The Politics of Reality” 

Slide 35

Bismarck Defies The Prussian Parliament

“It is not by the means of speeches and majority resolutions that the great issues of the day will be decided, that was the great mistake of 1848 and 1849, but by Blood & Iron” Bismarck

Slide 36

Prussia Expands “Blood and Iron”

    -1864, Prussia and Austria ally to fight Denmark, gain two border provinces

        -Schleswig and Holstein

    -Quick victory makes other German States and European Nations respect Prussia

After the victory Austria governed Schleswig and Prussia governed Holstein. The victory increased national pride in Prussia

Slide 37

Seven Weeks War

-1866, Bismarck creates border dispute with Austria to provoke war.

-Prussia humiliates Austria, seizes territory: Northern Germany

-Eastern and Western parts of Prussian Kingdom joined for first time in 1867

Austria was provoked into declaring war on Prussia.  Italy was allied with Prussia against Austria as well and received Venetia from Austria

Slide 38

The Franco-Prussian War

-Bismarck calculated that only an outside threat would unite Prussia and the Southern Germans

Slide 39


-The North was largely Protestant and the South was largely Catholic

    -The South resisted domination by a Protestant Prussia

Slide 40

The Deception

-Bismarck provokes war with France (Outside Threat) to unite all Germans

    -Bismarck creates the impression that the French Ambassador had insulted the Prussian King

-The French then declared war on Prussia: July 1870

Slide 41

German Victory

-German Troops poor over the borderland capture Napoleon III

    -Paris surrenders after being under siege

-Prussia is victorious!

-Bismarck creates a Germany united under Prussian Dominance, 1871

-Wilhelm II crowned Kaiser of the Second Reich at the Palace of Versailles

The Holy Roman Empire is considered the First Reich.  Hitler’s Germany is considered the 3rd Reich

Slide 42

Higher Order Question: Why didn’t Bismarck just declare war on France

Answer: The Southern Germans would never have united for an aggressive Prussian War.  Bismarck had to make the impression all of Germany was under attack!

Slide 43

A Shift In Power

The Balance of Power created in the Congress of Vienna shifted into an unbalanced  situation the mid 1800’s

Slide 44

Balance is Lost

-In 1815, The Congress of Vienna established the Five Powers in Europe

    -Austria, Prussia, Britain, France and Russia

-By 1871, Britain and Prussia (Now Germany) were the most powerful

-Austria and Russia are weaker militarily and economically

Slide 45

Higher Order Question: What could be the consequences of an unbalanced Europe?

Answer: Some countries could dominate the others militarily and economically

Slide 46

The End

These materials were prepared by Harms LLC and have neither been developed, reviewed, nor endorsed by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, publisher of the original WORLD HISTORY: Patterns of Interaction work on which this material is based.

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[Website Builder] has designed a number of PowerPoint and Keynote presentations to help students understand history. Designed by a teacher for teachers, this PowerPoint focuses on "The Congress of Vienna". This presentation is designed to give students an overview of The Peace Process at the Congress of Vienna. Students will be shown maps, animations and descriptions detailing these events.

      The presentation is totally customizable, allowing you to add your own pictures, graphics and animations to take what we've done even farther.  It comes with presentation notes to help you discuss the subject and engage students in the events of the end of Napoleonic Europe. At less than $3.00, it will save you time and lay the foundation for presentations that help students understand and remember.
The Topics include: The Congress of Vienna, Metternich, The Great Powers, Balance of Power, Holy Alliance, Concert of Europe, Conservative Europe, Containment of France, Napoleon

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