Nationalism: Unification of Italy and Germany
PowerPoint and Keynote Presenters Notes
Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction
Chapter 24, Section 3
Presenters Notes, Higher Order Questions, Concepts
Nationalism: Italy and Germany
Chapter 24 Section 3
Nationalism: A sentiment or sense of belonging and pride for your country, nationality or culture
Nationalism contributes to the formation of two new nations and a new political order in Europe
Nationalism: A Force For Unity or Disunity
Effects of Nationalism
-Nationalism can be used to unite countries or tear them apart
-Three Different types of Nationalist Movements
-Merging Culturally Similar Land
-Vast majority of the people in these states are Ethnic Germans
-Splitting Off Culturally Distinct Groups
-Example: Yugoslavia 1989-1992
-Culturally distinct groups form a new state by accepting a single culture.
Higher Order Question: How is State Building still taking place in the United States
Answer: New immigrants adapting to U.S. Culture
Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires
Nationalism weakens and eventually threatens to bring down these aged empires
Culture: The Traditions, Customs or Way of Life for a community of people
The Break-Up of the Austrian Empire
-Austria and Hungary Split Into Two Governments
The Ethnic Make-Up of the Austrian Empire
-The Austrian Empire includes people from many ethnic groups:
-Slovenes, Hungarians, Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Croates, Poles, Serbs and Italians
-1866, Prussia defeats Austria
-Prussia gains control of the North German Confederation
-The Hungarians put pressure on Francis Joseph to split the country into two separate states.
-Nationalists disputes will weaken the
-Francis Joseph: Austrian Empire
-Francis Joseph: Austrian Emperor, Hungarian Emperor
Higher Order Question: What did Emperor Francis Joseph hope to accomplish by splitting the empire in two?
Answer: Satisify nationalistic feelings in Hungary and still maintain control of both states
The Russian Empire Crumbles
-Large minorities react to forced Russification
The Russian Empire Crumbles
-After 370 years, Russian Czars (Romanovs) begin losing control over their empire
-Russification: forcing other peoples to adopt to Russian Culture
-Policy further disunites Russia, strengthens Ethnic Nationalism
-Ethnic Groups in The Russian Empire: Russians, Ukrainians, Belorussians, Uzbeks, Georgians, Chechens, Poles, Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Finns, Jews, Romanians, Armenians, Turks…….
Higher Order Question: How was Russification supposed to strengthen the Russian Empire?
Answer: If people shared the same culture they would feel apart of the Empire
The Ottoman Empire Weakens
-Internal Tensions among ethnic groups weakens the empire
-Rulers grant citizenship to all groups, outraging Turk Citizens
-Turks, Greeks, Arabs, Kurds, Albanians, Slavs, Armenians
Higher Order Question: The Turks in the Ottoman Empire would be considered on what side of the Political Spectrum?
Answer: Conservative: They wanted only Turks to have citizenship in the empire.
Cavour Unites Italy
-Discontent with foreign rule leads to Nationalism in Italian Regions
-Camillo di Cavour: Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1852
The Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
-Piedmont-Sardinia largest and most powerful Italian State
-Developed a Liberal Constitution in 1848, that appealed to Middle Class
-King Victor Emmanuel II named Camillo di Cavour as Prime Minister
-Cavour worked non-stop to increase Piedmont-Sardinia’s Power using:
-Well Chosen Alliances
-Wanted to gain control of Northern Italy
The Austrian Road Block
-Austria dominated the states of Northern Italy and therefor was the biggest road block to unification
-Cavour gained France’s support to drive Austria out of Northern Italy
-The combined force defeated Austria and secured Northern Italy for Sardinia
-Venetia was the only land they could not secure
Garibaldi Brings Unity
-As Cavour was uniting Northern Italy, he was secretly aiding Nationalist Rebels in Southern Italy led by Giuseppe Garibaldi
Garibaldi and his followers always wore Red Shirts and that’s why the became know as the “Red Shirts”.
-Giuseppe Garibaldi Leads Nationalists who conquer Southern Italy
-Cavour convinces Garibaldi to unite Southern Italy and Sardinia
-Garibaldi steps aside, allowing The King of Sardinia to rule
-Control of Venetia, Papal States finally unites Italy, 1870
Bismarck Unites Germany
-After many years of Austrian Domination, Prussia rises to lead German Unification
In 1815, 39 German States formed a loose alliance called the German Confederation, which was dominated by Austria.
-Prussia has advantages that help it unify Germany
-Mainly German Population
-Creation of a Liberal Constitution
-Powerful Prime Minister
Higher Order Question: What do you think Liberal Constitution means?
Answer: Liberal means it was a change from the old way of doing things: More power to the legislature (people) instead of to the king.
Bismarck Takes Control
-Prussian Junker, Strategist and Master of Real Politik
A New King of Prussia
-1861, Wilhelm I succeeds Frederick William as King
-Parliament refused him money to double the strength of the army
-A challenge to his authority
-Junkers: Conservative, wealthy , landowners- support Wilhelm I
-Junkers Realpolitik Master: Otto Von Bismarck, becomes Prime Minister
-Realpolitik: Power Politics without room for idealism
-U.S. idealistically opposed to Iran and North Korea
-Can engage those countries: Reality Politics
Realpolitik: “The Politics of Reality”
Bismarck Defies The Prussian Parliament
“It is not by the means of speeches and majority resolutions that the great issues of the day will be decided, that was the great mistake of 1848 and 1849, but by Blood & Iron” Bismarck
Prussia Expands “Blood and Iron”
-1864, Prussia and Austria ally to fight Denmark, gain two border provinces
-Schleswig and Holstein
-Quick victory makes other German States and European Nations respect Prussia
After the victory Austria governed Schleswig and Prussia governed Holstein. The victory increased national pride in Prussia
Seven Weeks War
-1866, Bismarck creates border dispute with Austria to provoke war.
-Prussia humiliates Austria, seizes territory: Northern Germany
-Eastern and Western parts of Prussian Kingdom joined for first time in 1867
Austria was provoked into declaring war on Prussia. Italy was allied with Prussia against Austria as well and received Venetia from Austria
The Franco-Prussian War
-Bismarck calculated that only an outside threat would unite Prussia and the Southern Germans
-The North was largely Protestant and the South was largely Catholic
-The South resisted domination by a Protestant Prussia
-Bismarck provokes war with France (Outside Threat) to unite all Germans
-Bismarck creates the impression that the French Ambassador had insulted the Prussian King
-The French then declared war on Prussia: July 1870
-German Troops poor over the borderland capture Napoleon III
-Paris surrenders after being under siege
-Prussia is victorious!
-Bismarck creates a Germany united under Prussian Dominance, 1871
-Wilhelm II crowned Kaiser of the Second Reich at the Palace of Versailles
The Holy Roman Empire is considered the First Reich. Hitler’s Germany is considered the 3rd Reich
Higher Order Question: Why didn’t Bismarck just declare war on France
Answer: The Southern Germans would never have united for an aggressive Prussian War. Bismarck had to make the impression all of Germany was under attack!
A Shift In Power
The Balance of Power created in the Congress of Vienna shifted into an unbalanced situation the mid 1800’s
Balance is Lost
-In 1815, The Congress of Vienna established the Five Powers in Europe
-Austria, Prussia, Britain, France and Russia
-By 1871, Britain and Prussia (Now Germany) were the most powerful
-Austria and Russia are weaker militarily and economically
Higher Order Question: What could be the consequences of an unbalanced Europe?
Answer: Some countries could dominate the others militarily and economically
These materials were prepared by Harms LLC and have neither been developed, reviewed, nor endorsed by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, publisher of the original WORLD HISTORY: Patterns of Interaction work on which this material is based.
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