PowerPoint and Keynote Presenters Notes
Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction
Chapter 17, Section 4
Presenters Notes, Higher Order Questions, Concepts
The Reformation Continues
Chapter 17 Section 4
-Anglican Church and Roman Catholic church similar in their doctrines and ceremonies.
As Protestant Reformers divide over beliefs, the Catholic Church makes reforms
-Anglican Church similar to Roman Catholic Church
-Calvinism emerges, inspired by John Calvin
Calvin Continues The Reformation
Religious Reform In Switzerland
-Zwingli wants to return to: Early Christian Church
-1520: Openly attacks abuses in the Catholic Church
-1531: Bitter war breaks out Catholics Vs. Protestants, Zwingli killed
-Zwingli influenced by Luther and Erasmus
Calvin Formalizes Protestant Ideas
-John Calvin would have as much influence in the spread of Protestantism as Luther did.
-In 1536, Calvin publishes “Institutes of the Christian Religion”
-People sinful by nature
-Cannot earn salvation
-Very few people will be saved
-Life’s path predetermined by God
-It has already been determined who will be saved
-What about “free will”? Is it possible that we have a destiny, but can make choices that may allow us to reach it?
Higher Order Question: How do Calvin’s Theories compare or contrast with your own beliefs?
Calvin Leads the Reformation in Switzerland
-1541 Leaders in Geneva Switzerland ask Calvin to lead them.
-City Run by strict rules
-Attend religion class
-No card playing
-No bright clothes
-Anyone caught preaching a different message would be burned at the stake!
-Calvin says the ideal government is Theocracy- rulers are both political and religious leaders.
-Geneva becomes a strict Protestant Theocracy led by Calvin
-1559: John Knox brings Calvinism to Scotland, followers: Presbyterians
-Church governed by laymen called Presbyters, or elders
-Calvin’s followers in France called Huguenots
-Catholics massacre Huguenots in Parus 1572 (St. Bartholomew’s)
Higher Order Question: What governments are Theocracies today?
Answer: 1. Iran, 2. Saudi Arabia, 3. Afghanistan, 4. Somalia
Other Protestant Reformers
-Interpretation Creates Differences
-Holy Bible: Anabaptists, Lutherans, Calvinists, Baptists
-Protestants: The Bible is the source of all religious truth and people should read it and discover those truths.
Anabaptists, Greek: “Baptize Again”
The Lamb caught in thorns symbolizes the early persecution of Anabaptists believers.
-Baptized only people who were old enough to decide or ReBaptized adults.
-Believes in Separation of Church and State
-Lasting influence on: Mennonites, Amish, Baptists and Quakers
Women’s Role In The Reformation
-Marguerite of Navarre protected Calvin in France
-Katrina Zell also protects reformers, comforts those in misery
-Katherina Von Bora, Luther’s Wife, promotes equality in marriage
The Catholic Reformation
Ass protestant numbers grow, millions stay loyal to the Catholic Church
A Counter Reformation
-A Catholic Reformation seeks to reform the Catholic Church from within
-Major reforming Popes: Paul III and Paul IV
-Counter Reformation: To go against the Protestant Reformation
Higher Order Question: Why did the Catholic Church feel it needed to make reforms?
Answer: Protestantism was reducing Catholic Church Members
Ignatius of Loyola
Grew up in his fathers castle in Loyola Spain. Turning Point: 1521, injured in war, thought about his past sins and the life of Jesus. His daily devotion he believed, cleansed his soul.
-Leading Catholic Reformer
-His “Spiritual Exercises” (1522) calls for meditation, prayer and study to cleanse the soul.
-Pope creates “Society of Jesus” religious order, The Jesuits
-Jesuits follow Ignatius, start schools, convert non-Christians, do good works
Higher Order Question: How did Jesuit Reforms help keep people from turning protestant?
Answer: Their schools taught priests, missionaries converted non-Christians
In Venice alone, followers burned over 10,000 books in one day!
-Pope Paul III
-Approved Jesuit Order
-Inquisition: Punish Heresy
-Called Council of Trent to lay out reforms
-Pope Paul IV
-Carried out the councils decrees, burned offensive books
Reforms: Council of Trent
-Church’s interpretation of the Bible is final
-Christians need faith and good works for salvation
-Bible and Church Traditions equally important
-Indulgences are valid expressions of faith
-False indulgences banned
-Church investigated corruption
The Legacy of The Reformation
-The Reformation set the stage for the modern world, but left Europe culturally divided
Religious and Social Effects of the Reformation
-Catholic Church is unified; Protestant Denominations grow
-Catholics and Protestants create schools throughout Europe
-Status of women does not improve
Political Effects of The Reformation
-Catholic Church’s power lessens, power of monarchs and states grow
-Reformation’s questionings of beliefs brings intellectual ferment
-Late 18th century sees an intellectual movement: The Enlightenment
These materials were prepared by Harms LLC and have neither been developed, reviewed, nor endorsed by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, publisher of the original WORLD HISTORY: Patterns of Interaction work on which this material is based.
Mr. Harms has designed a number of PowerPoint and Keynote presentations to help students understand history. Designed by a teacher for teachers, this PowerPoint focuses on "The Reformation Continues". This presentation is designed to give students an overview of how the Catholic Church answered Luther's Reformation with it's own Reform. Students will be shown maps, animations and descriptions detailing these events.
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The Topics include: The Reformation, John Calvin, Predestination, Geneva, Theocracy, Calvinism, Anabaptists, Catholic Reformation, Counter-Reformation, Ignatius of Loyola, Council of Trent.
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