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Higher Order Questions
-Mongolia lays between Russia and China today.
-A nomadic people from the Steppe, known for:
-Skills on horseback
-Courage in Battle
-Thirst for conquest and territory
Nomads of the Asian Steppe
The Mongols would swoop down and pillage to the South.
-Vast belts of dry grasslands
-Trade routes that connect East and West
The Western Steppe was the original home of the Hittite Invaders. The Eastern Step was the original home of the Huns, Turks and the Mongols.
-Geography of the Steppe
-Steppe has little rain, dramatic seasonal temperature differences:
—57 to 96 degrees F
-The climate is milder and has more rainfall in the Western Steppe
Higher Order Question: Why were peoples of the Steppe nomadic?
Answer: Poor climate and land for farming
Higher Order Question: Why did people migrate from East to West?
Answer: Milder climate, better conditions
Culture: The traditions, customs or way of life of a community
-The Nomadic Way of Life
As the Mongols returned to these places they considered their own, other tribes may have taken over those lands-which lead to a lot of conflicts. Keeping ownership of land while not actually living on it was difficult.
-Steppe nomads are pastoralists: herd domesticated animals.
-Way of life teaches Asian nomads to be skilled horse riders
-Nomads travel in clans: kin groups linked by a common ancestor
-They did not wander
They followed a path every year
Higher Order Question: Why is a clan group suitable for the Steppe?
Answer: the harsh conditions made families interdependent: or reliant on each other.
-Steppe Nomads and settled societies
-Nomads and people living in settled communities often interact
-Some interactions peaceful, as in trade
-Sometimes nomads raid towns and cities to seize wealth, goods
-Strong state or empire could protect it’s lands from these invasions
Higher Order Question: How might the values of settled and nomadic societies differ?
Answer: Stability, permanence and ownership.
The Rise of the Mongols
Temujin is Mongolian for “iron worker”
-Genghis Kahn Unites The Mongols
-About 1200 AD, Genghis Kahn “Universal Ruler” unites Mongols.
-Real Name Temujin
-Genghis Kahn was motivated by revenge.
-The Tartars had poisoned Temujin’s father and he wanted revenge!
-The Chinese had put them up to it.
The Chinese had paid the Tartars to murder Timujen’s father because he was becoming too powerful.
-The Chinese kept the Mongol Clans constantly warring with each other
-The strategy was to keep them fighting each other so they wouldn’t unite and attack the Chinese
-Oirats, Naimans, Kereyids, Merkids, Tartars, Mongols, Onguts
Conquest- The Subjugation and assumption of control of a place, people by use of military force
-Starting around 1200 AD, Temujin began to unify the Mongol Clans through conquest
-By 1206, Temujin had united the Mongols under his leadership
-Given the title: Genghis Kahn, “Universal Ruler”
Higher Order Question: What factors would someone trying to unify clans have to consider?
Answer: Resistance, animosity and how to provide and protect a large number of people
-Revenge on the Chinese
Genghis Kahn’s father was poisoned by the Tartars who were paid by the Chinese. Zhongdu, was the capital of the Jin Dynasty (Present day Beijing)
-Genghis Kahn seeks to pillage and destroy the Chinese Jin Dynasty
-Rebellion at Home
Genghis Kahn set up a system of communications called the Yam, very similar to the Pony Express.
-As Genghis Kahn chased the rebels, he conquered kingdom after kingdom creating a vast empire.
-Genghis the Conqueror
-A brilliant organizer
-Uses brutality to terrorize enemies, force surrender
-Organization of the Mongol Army
-Armies (10,000), Brigades (1,000), Company (100), Squad (10)
-Terror and surprise
-Genghis Kahn destroyed any town or state that defied him
-Before they even attacked, fear and panic griped the state.
-Difficult to defend when panicked in fear- paralyzed
-They might kill the entire population to create fear!
The Mongol Empire
-Death and Succession
-Genghis Kahn dies in 1227
-Successors continue conquests for 50 years
Higher Order Question: Was the empire strengthened by making descendants of Genghis leaders?
Answer: Yes- Armies are more likely to be loyal to descendants, No- Populations were too diverse to be loyal
After Genghis Kahn’s death, his sons and grand sons continued to conquer territory.
-In East: Mongols conquer Northern China and invade Korea
-In West: Mongols take Kiev and threaten Vienna and Venice
-In 1250’s: Mongols turn their attention to Persia.
-By 1260: Mongol Empire split into Khanates, four regions
Higher Order Question: What reasons do you see to break up Genghis Kahn’s Empire?
Answer: The empire had become to big to control. Also, this may have avoided fighting amongst his descendants for control of the empire.
-The Mongols As Rulers
-Mongol rulers are tolerant of other peoples, cultures.
-Some Mongols adopt local ways leading to a split among the Khanates
-As the Mongols took over Persia they converted to Islam.
Higher Order Question: The Mongols were great conquerors but poor rulers? (Defend Your answer)
-The Mongol Peace
-Pax Mongolica: peaceful period of prosperity from mid 1200’s to Mid 1300’s AD
Higher Order Question: Why would Mongols concern themselves about traders safe passage on the trade routes?
The Mongols grew rich from the trade from taxing goods on the routes. Safer trade meant more wealth.
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These materials were prepared by Harms LLC and have neither been developed, reviewed, nor endorsed by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, publisher of the original WORLD HISTORY: Patterns of Interaction work on which this material is based.
The Mongol Conquests Presentation
Interactive and engaging History lesson plans
Mr. Harms has designed a number of PowerPoint and Keynote presentations to help students understand history. Designed by a teacher for teachers, this PowerPoint focuses on "The Mongol Conquests". This presentation is designed to give them an overview of the development of the Mongol Empire. Students will be shown maps, animations and descriptions of some of the major events surrounding the Genghis Kahn.
The presentation is totally customizable, allowing you to add your own pictures, graphics and animations to take what we've done even farther. It comes with presentation notes to help you discuss the subject and engage them in the events of the Mongols. At less than $4.00, it will save you time and lay the foundation for presentations that help students understand and remember.
The Topics include: Mongols, Steppe, Nomads, Geography, Temujin, Genghis Kahn, Conquest, Mongol Empire, Khanates, Mongol Peace, Pax Mongolica
Number of Slides: 34 $3.40
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McDougal Littel's World History: Patterns of Interaction
An Age of Exchange and Encounter
Empires In East Asia
Chapter 12, Section 2 "The Mongol Conquests"