Mr. Harms has designed a number of PowerPoint and Keynote presentations to help students understand history. Designed by a teacher for teachers, this PowerPoint focuses on "A Flawed Peace 1918-1919" This presentation is designed to help students understand the aftermath of World War 1. Students will be shown maps, animations and descriptions of some of the major agreements of the Treaty of Versailles.
The presentation is totally customizable, allowing you to add your own pictures, graphics and animations to take what we've done even farther. It comes with presentation notes to help you discuss the subject and engage them in the aftermath of World War 1. At $2.00, it will save you time and lay the foundation for presentations that help students understand and remember.
The Topics include: Paris Peace Conference, Versailles Treaty, Wilson's 14 Points, The Big Four, New Countries, Territory Lost & Gained, Self Determination, Article 231, Colonies, Georges Clemenceau, Woodrow Wilson, David Lloyd George and Vittorio Orlando.
Number of Slides: 20 $2.00
Included in The Presentation Package:
1. Keynote Presentation
2. Power Point Presentation
3. Presenter's Notes: Text edit file of the outline of the presentation.
(The package is a digital download (Zip File) of these three items.
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Mcdougal Littel's World History: Patterns of Interaction
The World At War
The Great War
Chapter 29, Section 4 "A Flawed Peace"
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Source: Patterns of Interaction
Chapter 29, Section 4
After winning the war, The Allies dictate a harsh peace settlement that left many nations feeling betrayed.
I. The Allies Meet and Debate
-The Paris Peace Conference
Wilson’s 14 points had created a great deal of optimism for all parties involved at the start of peace negotiations.
-32 countries representing the Allies meet and debate
-Place: Palace of Versailles, France
-Not Present: Russia and the Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria
Question: Why didn’t Russia take part in the negotiations?
Answer: The Russians were embroiled in a civil war and had surrendered to the Germans in early 1918.
-The Treaty of Versailles was influenced by the “Big Four”
Woodrow Wilson- Genuinely wanted to create a new order in which peace could be maintained for a long time, however self interest and the need for revenge consumed the talks.
Georges Clemenceau- The idealogical opposite of Wilson, Clemenceau wanted revenge. Once said of Wilson” He thinks he is another Jesus Christ come upon earth to reform men”.
David Lloyd George- Was torn between two beliefs that he held. #1 along with most Brits, he believed the Germans should be punished with a harsh peace settlement. #2 However, he was also concerned about the Communist Russians and felt a not so devastated Germany could deter them from taking over Europe. If Germany were too weak, Russia might become aggressive in Europe
Vittorio Orlando- Left the conference after he found out Italy would receive much smaller amounts of territory than what they were promised when they entered the war in 1915.
-Woodrow Wilson U.S.
-Georges Clemenceau France
-David Lloyd George
-Vittorio Orlando Italy
Question: Why were so many of the Allied countries bitter after the Treaty?
Answer: The Bog Four dominated the peace negotiations and did not respect the opinions of the smaller countries - which left them bitter as well.
-Wilson’s Plan For Peace
In January 1918, the war was still going on when Wilson developed his plan for a just and lasting peace.
-The Fourteen Points:
-Points 1-4: End to secret treaties, freedom of seas & trade, reduced armies and navies.
-Point 5: Adjustment of colonial claims, fairness for colonial people.
-Points 6-13: Self Determination, countries borders, new countries based on what government people wanted to live under.
-Point 14: A general association of Nations- a place to negotiate the worlds problems. “The League of Nations”
Point 14: U.S. President Woodrow Wilson believed the League of Nations could make war obsolete and he believed it was so important that he was willing to compromise over and over, being taken advantage of by the Clemenceau and George.
-The Versailles Treaty
All of Germany’s foreign territories were confiscated and turned into mandates administered by the League of Nations. The Allies would rule until the mandates were ready for independence.
-Great Britain and France seek to punish Germany. (Humiliate)
-Article 231: Germany forced to admit guilt for the whole war and pay Reparations (Pay for cost and damages)
-Germany’s war making power diminished.
Question: Who do you think is responsible for the war?
II. A Troubled Treaty
-The Creation of New Nations
-Separate Treaties with The Defeated Powers
-In 1919 and 1920, the Western Powers signed treaties that lead to massive loss of land for the Central Powers.
-Germany returns Alsace & Lorraine to France
Germany had acquired Alsace & Lorraine from France after the victory in the Franco-Prussian War of 1871.
-New Nations Created: Yugoslavia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Austria
-Territory Lost: Tyrol & Trieste to Italy, Croatia, Bosnia and Slovenia to Yugoslavia.
-The Ottoman Empire:
-Territory Lost: Syria (Protectorate of France), Palestine (Protectorate of Great Britain), Trans-Jordan (Protectorate of Great Britain), Iraq (Protectorate of Great Britain)
Countries created from Russian Territory: Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland.
Territory Lost: Bessarabia to Romania
-A Peace Built on Quick Sand
As Wilson went around the United States promoting the Treaty of Versailles, politically people came behind him and discredited the treaty for they sham it was. The United States never signed the treaty (Has to be ratified in the Senate) and the U.S. never joined tyne League of Nations, even though it was Wilson’s idea. The U.S. signed a separate treaty years later with Germany. The U.S. became very isolationist after the war.
-The Treaty of Versailles did little to build a lasting peace.
-The U.S. rejected the treaty.
-The war guilt clause left a sense of bitterness and hatred in the German people.
-Asia and Africa were left as colonies: no self-determination.
-The Versailles Treaty was a disaster and the cause of the rise of Hitler.
-This lead to the worst conflict in human history: World War II (50 million people killed!)
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Post WWI: A Flawed Peace Presentation
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