Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction Click Here For PowerPoint/Keynote Preview
Chapter 29 Section 3
Higher order Questions
Desperate to gain an advantage, both sides seek alliances and resources from all over the globe.
-World War I Spreads to several continents and requires the full resources of many governments
Question: Did the new fronts in Africa and Asia have a significant impact on the war?
Answer: The spreading of the war to other continents had no significant impact on the war.
War Affects the World
Question: What advantages would there be to the Allies supplying the Russians?
Answer: Supplying the huge Russian army would put a tremendous strain on the German and Austro-Hungarian armies on the Eastern Front.
-Russia’s greatest Resource: Huge Army
-Russia’s Downfall: Limited Industry
-Lack of Infrastructure: Roads, Railroads, Bridges
I. The Gallipoli Campaign
The Ottoman Empire seemed like a weak spot for the Central Powers, but the Germans had sent military advisers to the region of the Dardanelles, so the Turks were led by German officers which made them very formidable. The battle soon became a stalemate. After a year the Allies gave up and evacuated the peninsula. The Allies suffered 250,000 casualties.
-Allies move to capture the Ottoman Dardanelles Strait in February 1915
-Goal: Knockout the Ottoman Empire
-Goal: Open a supply line to Russia
-Effort ends in a costly Allied defeat
II. Battles in Africa and Asia
The Japanese seized German clones in the Marianas and Caroline Islands as well as their holdings in China. Japan used their alliance with the Allies to increase their power and influence in Asia. The British and French used their naval superiority to capture 3 of the four German Holdings in Africa.
-Allies take control of German holdings in Africa and Asia
-Britain and France use their colonial subjects to help in the war effort
Question: Why would it be in the self-interest of the Japanese to help the Allies?
Answer: The Japanese wanted to increase their influence and power in Asia. Capturing the German Colonies increased their holdings while helping the Allies at the same time.
Many of the subjects colonized by the Europeans wanted little to do with the war, India had a different perspective. The colonies were an important asset for not only soldiers, but laborers, natural resources and the logistics of supplying the armies in the field.
Mohandas Ghandi “If we would improve our status through the help and cooperation of the British, it was our duty to win their help by standing by them in their hour of need”
Aid the British ———>Indian Independence
III. America Joins the Fight
-Germany seeks to control the Atlantic Ocean to stop supplies to Great Britain
-Uses unrestricted submarine warfare: All ships near Britain sunk without warning.
-Germans halt the policy in 1915, after the sinking of the Lusitania angers the U.S.
-The Germans claimed the Lusitania was carrying war materials which the allies denied at the time, but later turned out to be true.
-Germans renew unrestricted submarine warfare in 1917- hoping to starve Britain quickly.
-Zimmerman Telegram and unrestricted submarine warfare angers the United States
-U.S. declares war on Germany in April 1917
-The Zimmerman Note
This pushed the U.S. to ally with the Allies. Many German churches in the United States put American flags up in their sanctuaries to show their allegiance To their new country and to show they were not supporting the old country.
-The British intercepted this telegram from the German Foreign minister: Arthur Zimmerman
-The Germans offered aid to Mexico to reclaim the Southwest from the U.S.
Question: How did the Zimmerman Note push the U.S. over the brink?
Answer: The Americans were already sympathetic with the Allies because of a common bond of language and culture with England. The Lusitania and sinking of other American ships made the Zimmerman Note the final straw!
War Affects the Home Front
Question: Why did governments take control of their economies?
Answer: In order to maintain a constant flow of supplies and materials, the government must ration materials and products to make sure the army and navy get what they need in time of war.
I. Governments Wage TOTAL WAR
-World War One becomes total war- nations devote all resources to war.
-Governments take control of the economy to produce war goods
-Nations turn to rationing- limiting purchases of war related goods and natural resources
-The government rations food, gasoline, raw materials
-Booklets kept track of civilians consumption
- People that misused ration books were fined or imprisoned.
-Propaganda: One sided information to build morale, support for the war.
Question: What symbolism do you see? What emotions is the artist trying to elicit from the viewer?
-Women and the War
Women were thrust into factories, farms, held key administrative positions that would not have been possible before the war. In short, they showed men they were capable of far more than was thought at the time.
-At home, thousands of women fill jobs previously held by men
-This changed peoples views of what women were capable of
-Many women also experienced the war by working as nurses.
Question: How did the war change peoples attitudes about women?
Answer: Women got the chance to prove themselves because so many men were gone that they had to fill jobs that they would not have been allowed to do in normal times.
The Allies Win the War
I. Russia Withdraws
Civil unrest: riots and protests are the result of food and fuel shortages. The massive loss of life by the Russian Army also contributed to the downfall of the Czar.
-Civil unrest breaks out in Russia
-Forces the Czar to step down from the throne in 1917
-Provisional Government Fights On
Almost 5.5 million Russian soldiers have been killed, wounded or taken prisoner. 8 months after the Czar abdicated Russia was in revolution led by Vladimir Lenin.
-Alexander Kerensky believes Russia should fight on.
-The army and the people refuse to support the war.
-After the Germans sneak Lenin into Russia, the country descends into revolution!
Trotsky tried to stall the Germans, but a renewed German offensive saw the Russians lose more territory in a few weeks than during the entire war. The Russians quickly agreed to the harsh German terms.
-With no will to fight, the Germans force harsh terms on the Russians, Losses:
-1/3 of agricultural land
-3/4 of industry
-March 1918, the Treaty of Brest Litovsk ends the war in the East.
II. The Central Powers Collapse
-With Russia gone, Germany moves forces to the Western Front
The Germans had Crushed everything in their path, but they had also exhausted their supplies and men. They were now vulnerable themselves! The battle was named for the Marne river where it was fought.
-The last major German Offensive in the West: 2nd Battle of the Marne.
-40 miles from Paris and victory!
350 tanks helped shatter the German offensive. As 2 million fresh American troops arrive in France, the Allies steadily push the Germans back toward Germany.
-The French and U.S. attack the right flank of the Germans- collapsing the offensive.
-Stopped 40 miles from Paris and victory.
The Kaiser tried to implement democratic reforms in Germany, but it was too late and the people turned against him. Probably blaming him for the destruction of the German economy and loss in the war.
-September 1918: Bulgaria Surrenders
-October 1918: Ottoman Empire Surrenders
-November 1918: Austria-HungarySurrenders
-Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates his throne
-November 11th, 11:00 AM 1918 an armistice ends WWI
The Legacy of the War
-Both Sides Pay a High Price
-War takes a heavy Toll
-8.5 million soldiers dead
-21 million wounded
Total cost for the war was estimated at 338 billion dollars.
-War devastates European Economies, drains national treasuries
-Many acres of land, homes, villages and towns destroyed
-Survivors suffer disillusionment and despair
- National WWI Memorial, Assyrian Sphinxes
-“Memory Sphinx” Faces to the battlefields of France, shielding it’s eyes from the horrors of war.
-“Future Sphinx” Faces West, shielding it’s eyes from an unknown future.
Mr. Harms has designed a number of PowerPoint and Keynote presentations to help students understand history. Designed by a teacher for teachers, this PowerPoint focuses on "A Global Conflict 1915-1918" This presentation is designed to give them an overview of the events of the last 3 years of the Great War. Students will be shown maps, animations and descriptions of some of the major events of the First World War.
The presentation is totally customizable, allowing you to add your own pictures, graphics and animations to take what we've done even farther. It comes with presentation notes to help you discuss the subject and engage them in the events of World War 1. At less than $4.00, it will save you time and lay the foundation for presentations that help students understand and remember.
The Topics include: Eastern Front, Gallipoli Campaign, Battles in Africa and Asia, Mohandas Ghandi, unrestricted submarine warfare, Lusitania, Zimmerman Telegram, Total War, Rationing, Propaganda, Women's Role, Russia Withdraws, Central Powers Collapse, 2nd Battle of the Marne, Losses.
Number of Slides: 39 $3.90
Included in The Presentation Package:
1. Keynote Presentation
2. Power Point Presentation
3. Text edit file of the Outline of the Presentation and presenter's notes.
(The package is a digital download (Zip File) of these three items.
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