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Aggressors Invade Nations
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Source: World History, Patterns of Interaction
Chapter 31, Section 4
Presenters Notes, Higher Order Questions, Concepts
Aggressors Invade Nations
Chapter 31 Section 4
Conquest: The Subjugation and assumption of control of a place or people by use of military force
Different Directions: Peace and Aggression
The League of Nations
-As Germany, Italy and Japan conquer other countries, the rest of the world does nothing to stop them
Japan Seeks An Empire
-“Energy as powerful as the rising sun”
Militarism: Policy of glorifying military power and being prepared for war.
Militarists Take Control of Japan
-Civilian Govt. blamed for the hard times of The Great Depression
-Military leaders take control of the country
-Want to solve economic problems through foreign expansion
Militarists in Japan were extreme nationalists and felt they were superior to the rest of the peoples of Asia. Japan was by far the most advanced and industrialized nation in Asia.
-President: Commander In Chief
-Congress: Declares War
-Military Executes Policy
-Military: Makes/Executes Policy
-Civilian Government: Limited Control
Japan Invades Manchuria
-Japan Highly Industrialized
-Lacks Natural Resources
-Japan has investments in Manchuria: Chinese Province
-In 1931, Japanese Army seizes Manchuria
-League of Nations Protests action; Japan withdraws from League
Higher Order Question: What president was set by the league of Nations?
Answer: That aggressive actions would not be stopped
Japan Invades China
-China embroiled in a Civil War
-Jiang Jieshi led the Chinese Army
-Mao Zedong led the Communist fighters in the occupied territories
-In 1937, Japan launches invasion of China
The Chinese Army retreated West, the Communists continued to fight the Japanese. Many major cities fell to Japan.
European Aggressors On The March
The League of Nations’ Ineffectiveness encourages Aggression In Europe
Mussolini Attack Ethiopia
-Ethiopia, one of only three Independent African Nations
-In 1935, Massive Italian Invasion of Ethiopia
-Ethiopian spears and swords were no match for planes tanks and poison gas
-Ethiopia Pleads to the League of Nations
-Mussolini: Greatest Colonial Victory of All Time!
-Truth: Bankrupted Italy and seriously crippled Italian Military
Italy tried to conquer Ethiopia in 1890, but failed. Mussolini wanted revenge. Ethiopia would link Italy’s African colonies of Somalia and Eritrea.
Haile Selassie: Ethiopian Emperor
-Selassie pled his case to the League of Nations, but they only condemned the action.
-Great Britain even allowed Italian supplies to pass through the Suez Canal.
Hitler Defies the Versailles Treaty
Undoing the Treaty
-Germany’s Army limited to 100,000 men
-March 1935 Conscription announced (draft)
-League of Nations
Reoccupying The Rhineland
-March 7th 1936, Germany occupies the Rhineland
-Britain urges Appeasement: a policy of giving in to aggression to avoid war
The Rhineland was a heavily industrialized area of Germany, occupied and demilitarized by the French in The Versailles Treaty. Hitler was emboldened by the lack of outrage. Secretly the German Army had orders to bolt back across the river if there was any resistance- there was none. This move strengthened Hitler both inside and outside Germany.
The Rome-Berlin Axis
-October 1936, Hitler and Mussolini form the Rome-Berlin Axis
-November 1936, Japan joins and they are known as the Axis Powers
Hitler was a big admirer of Mussolini.
The Spanish Civil War
The Fascist Vs. The Republicans
-Spain, a monarchy until 1931, a republic is declared.
-In 1936, The Army and General Francisco Franco lead a rebellion
-Hitler and Mussolini help Franco and the Fascists
-Western Democracies: Neutral
-In 1939, Franco wins Spanish Civil War
-Franco becomes Spain’s Fascist Dictator
Democratic Nations Try To Preserve Peace
Higher Order Question: Why didn’t the Western Powers stop the aggressors early on?
Answer: 1. The horrors of WWI still fresh in minds 2. Great Depression distracted them
The United States Is Isolationist
-Isolationism: Avoidance of political ties with other countries
-In 1935, Congress passes Neutrality Acts:
-Banned loans and the sale of arms to nations at war
Higher Order Question: How did America’s experience during and after WWI affect it’s policy?
Answer: 1. The country became isolationist 2. People felt World War I was a waste and it was all happening again.
The German Reich Expands
Patterns: A series of actions or behaviors that are consistent
-Hitler plans to expand the Third Reich: German Empire
-In March 1938, Hitler Annexes Austria
-Mussolini Shocked and Upset
-Britain & France ignored their pledge to defend Austria
A lot of Austrians supported Anschluss with Germany. The Versailles Treaty forbade the union of the two countries.
-3 million germans lived in the Western Region of Czechoslovakia:
-Hitler demands the Sudetenland
-Czech’s refuse: look to France for help
Hitler fabricated stories of how Germans were being persecuted in the Sudetenland to make a case for invasion.
The Munich Pact
-1938, Mussolini calls for a meeting in Munich Germany to settle the Sudeten Crisis
-Britain & France agree to allow Germany to take the Sudetenland
-Germany guaranteed Czech Borders
-Hitler took the rest of the Czech lands in 1939.
Once the fixed defenses of the Sudetenland were gone- the rest of the Czech lands would be helpless. Hitler took the rest of Czecholkslokia less than 6 months later.
“Peace For Our Time”
-Neville Chamberlain believed Hitler when he said”I have no more territorial demands”
-Winston Churchill believed “WE have sustained a defeat without a war”
The Polish Crisis
-Hitler demands the former German Port of Danzig!
-Stalin negotiates with GB, France and Germany
Danzig was a German Port before the Versailles Treaty, it’s also the only major port for Poland on the Baltic Sea
-With all eyes on Poland, Mussolini takes advantage
-Italy Invades Albania
-Stalin plays both sides, gets the best deal from Hitler
-The Non-Aggression Pact
-In 1939, Hitler and Stalin pledged never to attack each one another
-Other Secret Provisions
The End, or is it the beginning?
These materials were prepared by Harms LLC and have neither been developed, reviewed, nor endorsed by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, publisher of the original WORLD HISTORY: Patterns of Interaction work on which this material is based.
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1935-1938 Aggressors Invade Nations Presentation
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The Topics include: League of Nations, Japan, Italy, Germany, Manchuria, Ethiopia, Rome-Berlin Axis, Rhineland, Versailles Treaty, Spanish Civil War, Hitler, Mussolini, Isolationist, Anschluss, Sudetenland, Munich Pact, Neville Chamberlain, Albania, Nazi-Soviet Pact, Non Aggression Pact
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